76th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Fall 1990)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
October 17-20, 1987
Long Beach, California

APPLICATION OF POPULATION GENETICS IN FORENSIC CASEWORK
Charlotte Word, Ph.D., Cellmark Diagnostics

Population genetics and how they apply to forensic case work will be discussed. Match criteria, data bases and auto-rad interpretation will be covered.


THE INVESTIGATION ASPECT OF THE RANDY KRAFT SERIAL HOMICIDE CASES
Sergeant Jim Sidebotham, Orange County Sheriff's Department

During Sergeant Sidebotham's portion of the Randy Kraft presentation he will be discussing Kraft's arrest, searches of his vehicle and residence, items recovered from these locations and the problems involved in multiple jurisdiction investigations.


PHYSICAL EVIDENCE IN THE RANDY KRAFT CASE
Jim M. White and Christine Chan, Orange County Sheriff-Coroner

Randy Kraft was detained by the California Highway Patrol on May 14, 1983, under suspicion of driving under the influence. He was found to have a dead young man in his vehicle. Subsequent investigation led to the conclusion that he was responsible for over 60 homicides in at least 3 states over a ten year period. He was charged and found guilty of 16 of these deaths. The responsibility for the physical evidence in the Kraft serial murder case provided a case management situation of unusual complexity. The suspected cases were each reviewed for physical evidence potential and those with significant evidence were included in the set of cases to be charged. While the defendant's penchant for taking photographs, keeping souvenirs and a list of nicknames for his victims made many of the counts readily triable, significant physical evidence, including a fingerprint, fibers and a physical match, greatly assisted other counts. Bloodstains found in the defendant's vehicle were held by the trial judge to be inadmissible under the California Evidence Code. A court display clearly showing the relevance of these stains would probably have overcome the judge's reluctance to admit them. Throughout the investigation and trial, constant communication among the investigators, trial attorney and the criminalists gave each a thorough understanding of the physical evidence in the case which resulted in a clear presentation of this evidence at trial.


THE PROSECUTION OF RANDY KRAFT
Bryan Brown, District Attorney, County of Orange

Compiling and collating the evidence necessary to identify and prosecute a serial killer. A perspective in linking twenty-four different serial torture killings from 1972 to 1983 to Randy Steven Kraft.


THE NIGHT STALKER - A CASE STUDY
Sergeant Frank Salerno and Detective Gil Carrillo, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, Homicide Bureau

Sergeant Frank Salerno and Detective Gil Carrillo will speak on a series of homicides that held the citizens of Los Angeles County in total fear during the summer months of 1985. The series, which became well known as the "Night Stalker", actually started in March of that year and it was not until August 31, 1985, that Richard Ramirez was arrested. That arrest ended a reign of terror that had never been seen by the citizens of this county. It would be their hope, that through this case study, more could be learned about an individual who defied criminal history.


PHYSICAL EVIDENCE IN THE NIGHT STALKER CASES
Gisele La Vigne, Steve Renteria, and Gerald Burke, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, Scientific Services Bureau

Conventional shoeprint examination involves class and individual characteristic comparisons. Due to the extended period of time separating the Night Stalker scenes and the quality of the impressions, individual characteristics were not seen. Class characteristics of the "Avia" shoe impressions yielded valuable information regarding size and style, thus providing a common link between several Night Stalker crime scenes. The Night Stalker crime scenes yielded an extensive quantity of serological evidence. The majority of the stains examined were found to be consistent with the victims' serological types. Richard Ramirez was included as a possible donor of semen stains found at several of the Night Stalker crime scenes. Results from three different samples and their subsequent interpretation were queried by the defense.


THE PROSECUTION OF THE NIGHT STALKER CASES
Alan S. Yochelson, Deputy District Attorney, Office of the District Attorney, County of Los Angeles

Richard Ramirez aka "The Night Stalker" was ultimately convicted in Los Angeles County of thirteen murders and thirty other felonies. He was sentenced to death for each of these murders and given a consecutive sentence of some fifty-nine years. In preparation for the trial, literally hundreds of potential exhibits utilizing serological evidence were available to the prosecution. Ultimately, however, the case focused on three such items. In one instance, a blood soaked woman's sash contained antigens indicating a blood type which was different from that of the victim and Richard Ramirez. In a second incident, a spot of blood found at the scene indicated a PGM sub-type that was different from the victim and defendant. Finally, in a third incident, complications arising from the use of the Isoelectric Focusing Technique yielded PGM sub-type results that were inconsistent with the remaining evidence. How these issues were confronted and met are the subject of this presentation, given by the co-prosecutor in the case of the People v. Richard Ramirez. Bloodstains found in the defendant's vehicle were held by the trial judge to be inadmissible under the California Evidence Code. A court display clearly showing the relevance of these stains would probably have overcome the judge's reluctance to admit them. Throughout the investigation and trial, constant communication among the investigators, trial attorney and the criminalists gave each a thorough understanding of the physical evidence in the case which resulted in a clear presentation of this evidence at trial.


RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE MASTER CRIMINALIST
W. Jack Cadman

NO ABSTRACT SUBMITTED


THE ROLE OF THE SPECIAL MASTER FOR SEROLOGIAL EVIDENCE IN THE CASE OF PEOPLE V. RICHARD RAMIREZ
Gary A. Sims, California Department of Justice, DNA Laboratory

The criminal justice system has come to rely on the appointment of Special Masters as a means of controlling the re-examination of physical evidence in complex cases such as the case of People v. Richard Ramirez, also known as the "Night Stalker" case. This paper will review the logistics of handling the large volume of serological evidence in this serial murder case. Chain-of-custody, transportation and storage of evidence, and monitoring of tests performed by defense criminalists will be discussed. The interaction of the Special Master with the court, the attorneys, and the crime labs will also be addressed.


DEFENSE OBSERVATIONS ON SERIAL HOMICIDE CASES
Brian Wraxall, Serological Research Institute

Serological analysis or re-analysis on behalf of a defendant can sometimes be difficult. The process of carrying out these functions together with some problems encountered will be discussed. Further problems with the analysis in cases involving serial homicides will also be discussed.


HUMAN HAIR INDIVIDUALIZATION: PRINCIPLES
Robert R. Ogle, Jr., Forensic Science Consultant, P.O. Box 3087, Fairfield, CA 94533

The process of human hair individualization is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the role of classification, identification and individualization terminology as the nexus of the individualization process. Areas of research needed to further the "science" of hair individualization are identified and encouraged. The role of "comparison" as the non-scientific element of individualization is clarified and the role of classification is suggested as the area needful of research efforts. Those features used for the hair examinations are discussed with regard to their usefulness in the individualization process.


ROBOTIC ANALYSIS FOR COCAINE, OPIATES AND MARIJUANA IN URINE CASE SAMPLES
Robert W. Taylor, B.S. and Sam D. Le, M.S, Toxicology Section, Los Angeles County Sheriff's, Department, Scientific Services Bureau, 2020 West Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90057-2494

The number of drug related cases received at this crime laboratory continues to increase. Automated procedures have been developed for the detection and quantitation of cocaine, opiates, and marijuana in urine case samples. The samples were initially screened for these drugs by a Syva Emergency Toxicology System (ETS). A Zymate Robotic Laboratory Automation System was then used for the confirmation testing by performing the extraction and derivatization of the drugs from the samples. The drugs were detected using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The automation of these procedures has proven to be reliable and efficient. Some cases performed by these automated methods will be presented.


A COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS FOR OBSERVING GLYCOGENATED SQUAMOS EPITHELIAL CELLS
Ed Jones, Jr. and John Houde, Ventura Co. Sheriff's Crime Laboratory, 800 South Victoria Avenue, Ventura, CA 93009

Thirty-three slides containing vaginal epithelial cells were treated with Lugol's iodine and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) solution as a stain for glycogen. The ratio of glycogen positive to total cells was calculated and compared. On the average, the two methods appeared similar in their glycogen staining ability; however, where large differences between the methods were observed, the PAS method seemed to be more sensitive.


MAMMALIAN TISSUE IDENTIFICATION - PARTS IS PARTS
Lynne D. Herold, Ph.D., Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, Scientific Services Bureau, 2020 West Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90057

An introduction to basic mammalian histology (microscopic anatomy) will be presented as a review of the hierarchical structural organization of bodies, the seven basic tissue types, and several organs of common forensic interest (skin, skeletal muscles). Several case applications of tissue identification, proper methods of collection and storage of non-blood tissues, and the potential for DNA profiling of these tissues or organs will be discussed.


GASTRIC CONTENTS - HOW WHAT GOES IN CAN HELP YOU OUT
Lynne D. Herold, Ph.D., Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, Scientific Services Bureau, 2020 West Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90057

Identification, description and the digestive condition of decedent's gastric contents in terms of the food items eaten can provide valuable investigative information or corroborative evidence. Several cases will be presented in which gastric contents were used to:

  1. help establish time of death,
  2. support or refute suspect or witness statements,
  3. retrace victims' whereabouts prior to death,
  4. suggest alternate investigative leads.

The examination technique, physiological basis of this type of examination, reports and warrants generated and court testimony will be discussed.


TYPING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GC 1A1 RARE VARIANT USING THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
Rebecca Reynolds, Ph.D., Cetus Corporation, Emeryville, CA 94608; George Sensabaugh, D. Crim.,140 Warren Hall, Forensic Science Group, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720

We previously developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system for typing Gc. The system involves amplification of a specific region of the Gc gene containing sequence polymorphisms at two positions affecting restriction enzyme (RE) recognition sites. The Gc PCR products are incubated with the restriction enzymes Hae III and Styl in separate reactions and the fragments are separated on an agarose gel. The 6 Gc genotypes give 6 distinct RE digestion patterns, allow-ing unambiguous Gc typing of any sample from which DNA can be extracted.

We have extended our study of sequence variation among the Gc alleles to include several rare variants. The 1A1 (or Ab or Y) rare variant also contains a polymorphic RE recognition site. We have used RE and DNA sequence analysis to characterize this rare variant and have identified amino acid differences between the 1A1 variant and the 3 common Gc alleles. In addition, the 1A1 sequences from a group of American Blacks and a group of Australian aborigines were compared.


DNA EXTRACTION BY ORGANIC AND NON-ORGANIC PROCEDURES FROM BLOOD STANDARDS DRIED ON CLOTH AND FILTER PAPER
Michelle E. Home, B.A., Keith E.P. Inman, M. Crim., Lisa M. Brewer, B.S., and Mary L. Pierson, B.A.; California Department of Justice, DNA Laboratory, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, MS 934-47A, Berkeley, CA 94720

The California Legislature in 1983 mandated obtaining blood samples from convicted sex offenders upon release from prison for the purpose of creating a data bank of ABO PGM and PepA profiles. That mandate was expanded in 1989 to include all violent offenders and the creation of a DNA typing profile data bank. When the original program was begun, the California Department of Justice, Bureau of Forensic Services, preserved the samples by making a stain on filter paper and freezing it. We wanted to know how efficiently DNA could be extracted from these stains. Samples from known donors were obtained and 35 μl stains (app 1 μg of DNA) were prepared on filter paper and cotton cloth. Stains were extracted by the FBI organic extraction protocol and the Lifecodes non-organic procedure and quantitated by ethidium bromide stained gels and slot blot densitometry. Results indicate that DNA is extracted from the cotton more efficiently than from the filter paper.


THE RECOVERY, AMPLIFICATION AND DQα TYPING OF DNA FROM PARTIALLY CREMATED HUMAN REMAINS
Gary A. Sims, B.S., Lance Gima, B.S., and Kenneth C. Konzak, M.S., California Department of Justice, DNA Laboratory, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, MS 934-47A, Berkeley, CA 94720; Jennifer Super-Mihalovich, M. Ph. and Edward T. Blake, D. Crim., Forensic Science Associates, 3053 Research Drive, Richmond, CA 94806

Charred human remains are sometimes encountered in forensic casework. The personal identification of this material is very difficult in situations where only partial remains, such as a single bone, exist. One approach to solving this problem is to exploit the genetic information found in the DNA of such tissues. Human bones were subjected to various temperatures ranging from 200-600 degrees Centigrade in order to study the effects on DNA in partially cremated remains. Samples of marrow, bone and adhering tissue were analyzed for DNA content using a standard extraction procedure followed by Centricon ultra-filtration. An attempt was made to amplify and type the DNA at the DQα locus using the polymerase chain reaction. Our findings indicate that DNA can be recovered and successfully typed from severely burned human bones.


DNA PROBE D4S139/PH30: THE OCCURRENCE AND INTERPRETATION OF THREE BAND PATTERNS
Howard C. Coleman, Genelex Corporation, 1001 Broadway #101, Seattle, WA 98122; John S. Waye, Ph.D. and Ron Fourney, Ph.D., Central Forensic Laboratory, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario K1G, 3M8, Canada

The evaluation of single, highly polymorphic DNA loci has become a standard forensic test. One commonly used VNTR locus, D4S139, contains internal restriction site polymorphisms in some individuals. This has been demonstrated by the analysis of single and double digest restriction maps. The frequency of occurrence of the site polymorphism for Hae III ranges from approximately 1% in the Caucasian population to as high as 10% in a Native American popula-tion. When calculating the expected frequency of occurrence of a DNA profile that contains a site polymorphism and hence a third band, the frequency of the site polymorphism can be used with the frequency of the most common band detected in the DNA profile.


AN OVERVIEW OF ANTIBODY PROFILING
Jennifer Meek, Senior Scientist and Amy J. Percy, Ph.D., Miragen Incorporated, 10655 Sorrento Valley Road, San Diego, CA 92121

Antibody Profiling is a novel method of identifying individuals based on the detection of Individual-Specific (IS) autoantibodies. The uniqueness and stability of the set of autoantibodies in each individual was discovered by Francoeur (Bio/Technology, 6:822,1988) using a western blot-based assay. A number of experiments designed to explore the applicability of this technique to human identification were performed. The uniqueness of the profiles in a group of 500 in-dividuals was determined. Seven individuals were followed for 3 months to one year to determine if minor illness had an effect on their IS antibody profiles. The stability of the antibodies in dried blood stains on different fabrics or with a number of contaminants was also tested. Based on the results of these experiments, the potential use of this technology in forensic serology will be discussed.


IMMUNOLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF HUMAN SEMEN USING EXTRACT OF CALLESTIMON LANCEOLATUS SEEDS
Sangeeta Joshi, M.S., Department of Forensic Science, Punjabi University, Patiala, India; Vijay K. Sharma, Ph. D. and Babur Lateef, Tristate Laboratories, 19 East Front Street, Youngstown, OH 44503; Devinder Pal Singh Cheema, Punjab State Police, Forensic Science Laboratory, Sector 9, Chandigarh, India

In a search for lectin which can specifically identify human semen, crude extracts of seeds of various plants were prepared and tested against human semen, other body fluids and semen samples of some common animals by immunodiffusion (ID) and Counter Immuno-electrophoresis (CIEP). It was observed that the extracts prepared from the seeds of Callestimon lanceolatus gave strong precipitin reactions with human semen only using ID, but using CIEP, positive results were also obtained with normal and menstrual blood samples. There was no ambiguity in the identification of semen samples of vasectomised and azoospermic individuals. The semen samples as old as 3 years could be easily identified by this lectin. Further work is being carried out for purification and characterization of this lectin so that ultimately, it can serve as a cheaper tool for the identification of semen.