59th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Spring 1982)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
May 14-16, 1982
NEWPORT BEACH, CALIFORNIA

THE WORLDS MOST MODERN FORENSIC FACILITY
James D. Beisner, Chief Deputy Coroner, Orange County Sheriff-Coroner. Santa Ana, Calif.

The Sheriff-Coroner opened the first County Forensic Facility in October 1981. This modern facility is equipped with all up to date equipment such as stereo, surgical and high powered microscopes. Fluoroscopy and dental x-ray are available in house. Considerations have been given to handling multiple deaths, contaminated and putrefied bodies as well as routine natural deaths. The team approach in questioned death investigation is enhanced as a result of this fine facility.


FBI LABORATORY'S LEAD ANALYSIS PROGRAM
JOHN W. KILTY,B.S., Elemental Analysis Unit, FBI Laboratory, Washington, D.C.

The determination of the alloying and trace element composition of bullet lead has proved useful in associating or disassociating bullets and/or bullet fragments with a possible source of ammunition. For instance, if there are no identifying marks of value on a bullet recovered from a victim or a crime scene, the composition of the questioned bullet may be compared to the composition of bullets seized from the suspect's firearm. Our program involves the analysis for copper, antimony and arsenic by neutron activation. Computer programs are available for data reduction, data storage and intercomparisons among specimens in the same case and different cases. Compositions of bullets range from dead soft lead (core lead) essentially devoid of measurable concentration of trace elements to bullets containing substantial concentrations (up to 10 percent) of elements other than lead. Data show that within-bullet compositional variation is generally negligible; however, several distinct compositions or lead can be represented in a single box of cartridges. Therefore, degree of compositional difference must be considered purposes of eliminating a possible source of lead.


NEW SILICONE RUBBER CASTING MATERIAL DESIGNED FORENSIC APPLICATIONS
STEPHEN M. OJENA, M.S., Contra Costa County Criminalistics Laboratory, Martinez, CA 94553

The need for an improved silicone rubber casting material has been evident for years. Products currently available must usually be coated or colored to make them opaque so that fine detail can be microscopically observed. A new product manufactured in Sweden has properties which make it superior to other casting materials currently available. Visibility of detail in casts made from shallow marks is dramatically increased due to its reflective properties and uniform opacity. Besides the usual tool mark applications, the material has been found useful in the comparison of firing pin impressions where lighting is a problem. It is also beneficial in the examination of shiny surfaces such as extractor marks on cartridge casings and rifling marks on fired bullets. Examples will be shown.


RECONSTRUCTION OF IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICE BY MEANS OF COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION AND GROUPING
CHARLES H; STUMPH, Hazardous Devices Squad, Orange County Sheriff-Coroner Department, Santa Ana, California 92702

The reconstruction of an improvised explosive device after the occurrence of a bombing incident is a useful aid toward establishing a criminal corpus, developing criminal and terrorist group activity, and the ultimate successful prosecution of the perpetrator. Through the process of grouping recovered component fragments into the areas of Container, Initiating Source, Fuze System, and Explosive a total reconstruction of the improvised explosive device will start to develop. These main groups can then be further divided into sub-group areas which will include: Initiating Source (Electric/Non-electric), Fuze System (Time Delay/ Action Delay/ Command Delay), and Explosive (High Explosive/Low Explosive). Utilization of component grouping is dependent upon proper recognition of recovered component fragments; therefore, a combined investigative team consisting of criminalists and explosive technicians is best capable of conducting this type of reconstructive analysis.


DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELISA ASSAY FOR HUMAN SEMINAL P30
GEORGE F. SENSABAUGH, D. Crim,* HOWARD GRAVES, M.D., School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley; E. T. BLAKE, D. Crim Forensic Science Associates, Emeryvllle, CA; JAN BASHINSKI, M.Crim, Oakland Police Department, Oakland, CA

The existence of apparent seminal plasma specific protein, P30, has been previously described (J. Forens. Sci. 23; 106, 1978). This protein has found use as a marker for the identification of semen in stains, but the sensitivity of the immunological tests used for its detection limit its utilization in the analysis of vaginal swab material. We have developed a sensitive quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for P30 which is capable of detecting the protein in semen diluted 1:100,000. This assay has been used to further define the specificity of the protein and for the detection of P30 in post coital vaginal swab material.


THE USE OF BIOMECHANICS IN INJURY ANALYSIS
CARLEY WARD Ph.D., Biodynamics/Engineering, Inc., Pacific Palisades, California 90272, and THOMAS NOGUCHI M.D., Los Angeles County Coroner

Biomechanics - The application of engineering principles to the study of the human body is being used to analyze in-juries. Results of such studies have been used successfully in criminal investigations, and related testimony has been judged admissible in murder trials. A biomechanical analysis is especially helpful when investigating the cause of the in-jury, determining if the injury was the result of a criminal act or an accident. Reenactments of the injury event are per-formed using an anthropomorphic dummy (a dummy whose mass distribution approximates that of the injured person). Forces or accelerations are measured and the dynamics of the event are recorded on high speed film or video tape. To help interpret the results, a simulation is also performed on the computer using a mathematical idealization of the injured body member. Dynamic stresses and strains are compared to known injury criteria, tissue tolerances or bone fracture strengths.


SINGLE COLUMN ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF EXPLOSIVE RESIDUE
Michael J. Green, Santa Ana Police Department, 24 Civic Center Plaza, Santa Ana, California, 92701

Report on the application of electronically suppressed Ion chromatography to post blast residues containing ionic specie. Method allows differentiation of such ions as CL, CLO3 CLO4 NO2, NO3 Na, K, NH4, MMA. Blast debris is washed with DI water concentrated by evaporation and injected sensitive to PPB concentrations. Capability is available as add on to HPLC. By using known quantities of control and/or unknown, ions can be quantitated. Other forensic applications will be mentioned.


RECOGNITION OF THE ESD 5 ALLELE BY A COMBINATION OF CONVENTIONAL AGAROSE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS AND ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING
J.M. WHITE. Forensic Science Services, Orange County Sheriff-Coroner, Santa Ana, California 92702

It has been demonstrated that samples which have been phenotyped EsD 2-1 or 2 include the recently discovered rare phenotypes 5-1, 5-2 and 5. Population studies in Caucasians have shown that 20%. of what have been called EsD 2 gene products are in fact products of the EsD 5 allele. EsD 5-1 and 5 can be detected by high resolution agarose gel electrophoresis (Wraxall group 1) with proper controls; however a more objective detection method is to screen a 11 EsD 2-1 and 2 samples by isoelectric focusing ( .45 mm .polyacrylamide gels 5% T 3% C containing Servalytes® pH 5-7' and-5-6 at a 1:1 ratio, focused for 2400 volt hours, after pre-run up to 1600 V at 10 MA limit Samples are applied 3 cm from the anode and the anodic side of application is stained for EsD, while the cathodic side is stained for PGM. Samples cannot be characterized by IEF alone because the EsD phenotypes 1 and 2-1 are not distinguished. (Acknowledgement to Dale Dykes, War Memorial Blood Bank, Minneapolis, Minn., of whose unpublished method this is an adaptation.)


ENHANCEMENT OF IMMUNOFIXATION GC PATTERNS WITH A SECONDARY ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE
J.M. WHITE, Forensic Science Services,Orange County Sheriff-Coroner, Santa Ana, California 92702

Electrophoresis gels for Gc phenotyping by immunofixation followed by staining with Coomasie Brilliant Blue R frequently give very weak banding patterns which may make phenotype interpretation difficult and photographic recording impossible. The following statement was encountered in some work by Mauff et al on Properdin Factor B Typing: "No second immunofixation with anti-rabbit immunoglobulin will be necessary with this method for the enhancement of bands."

By trial and error, the following staining procedure was developed to give enhancement of Gc bands:

  1. Immunofixation, press and overnight wash as usual.
  2. Rinse 5 minutes distilled water.
  3. Immunofix with rabbit anti-goat immunoglobulin serum (Atlantic Antibod RAG 058-01 , diluted 1:5 with water, 1 1/2 hours
  4. Press 30 minutes.
  5. Wash 3 hours in 1 M saline, rinse 5 minutes H20.
  6. Press, dry and stain as usual.
1. MAUFF, G., et al., "Properdin Factor B (Glycine-Rich Beta-Glycoprotein or C3 Proactivator)-Polymorphism: Genetic and Biochemical Aspects First Application to Paternity Cases." Z . Immun.-For. Sch. Bd. 150, S. (1975), 327.

SOME HINTS FOR THE FORENSIC FIBER MICROSCOPIST
SKIP PALENIK, McCrone Associates, 2820 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago IL 60616

The author describes and illustrates his approach to the microscopic identification of synthetic fibers. It is possible in many cases to determine the manufacturer of a particular fiber using this approach. The first step identification of genus - is made, in most cases, by a few simple optical tests with the polarizing microscope. The next most useful properties are generally cross-sectional shape (with subsequent determination of denier and modification ratio) and/or an exact determination of birefringence. Subsequent tests are based upon the results of this initial examination and reference to a well-documented and dated collection of known fibers and manufacturer's information. Carpet fibers are used as a particularly well suited illustration of the method. Finally, the graphical display of optical data by means of "standort" diagrams as proposed by Heuse in Germany is explained and recommended.


A SINGLE TOOTH AS EVIDENCE IN A CALIFORNIA FIRST DEGREE HOMICIDE CASE
NORMAN D. SPERBER, D.D.S. Forensic Odontologist, San Diego Police Dept., San Diego Coroner's Office; San Diego, California

In a first degree homicide case in southern California (1981 a single tooth tied a murder scene in one city to an unidentified decomposed body in another, led to the positive identification of the victim and the eventual conviction of two suspects. (This case is believed to be the first of its type in forensic literature.) In July 1980 detectives for the El Cajon, California Police Department found a fractured maxillary central incisor amidst blood and other signs of a violent crime in a motel room after being called to the scene by management. Approximately two weeks later, a decomposed body was found near a major university in San Diego, California. Since the head had sustained numerous head fractures, investigators for both police departments suspected that the motel room tooth might be related to the victim. The author was contacted and met with agents from both police departments. It was established that the tooth from the motel room fit perfectly in the socket of the left central incisor.


PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALCOHOL - SOME CONCEPTIONS AND MISCONCEPTIONS
A.K.BERGH, Ph.D., Ventura County Crime Laboratory. Ventura, CA. 93009

The literature abounds with calculations of alcohol distribution coefficients relative to breath testing. Should apparent variations really be ascribed to variations in distribution coefficients? This question is discussed in an endeavor to place various influencing factors in proper perspective, e.g., equilibria considerations, temperature gradients, and breath sampling techniques. Results of in vitro and in vivo studies reported in the literature are discussed in the context of factors under consideration and the multiphase system involved. Hematocrit variations are also discussed, but they are not considered to be a large factor.


SOME THOUGHTS ON CRIME LABORATORY MANAGEMENT
LOWELL W. BRADFORD, B.S. Forensic Scientist and Consultant in Physical Evidence, P.O. Box 1148, San Jose, CA 95108

PART I - The crime scene search function is approached in many different modes, depending upon the agency in charge. A theoretical model is developed in this paper which lends itself to a strategy for optimal efficiency; i.e., employing the least amount of skill level required, yet introducing maximum skill at the appropriate occasion; thus applying the principle of economy to the utilization of precious and vital forensic science resources.
PART II - Laboratory examination notes and reports play an important role in Criminalistics operations. Coordination work with a variety of crime laboratories demonstrates that at both the bench worker and manager level, there is very little understanding of the purpose of laboratory case file procedure in the overall operational picture. The anatomy and functions of the laboratory case file are discussed from both conceptual and pragmatic points of view.


COMPARISON OF GUN LAND AND GROOVE MEASUREMENT DIMENSIONS
FRANK CASSIDY, Calif. DOJ Lab, Santa Barbara

None of the published literature was found that described the relationship between the width of lands or grooves of a weapon when comparing the chord length, and the arc length. An analytical method was derived which shows that the relationship is dependent on the included angle regardless of the caliber This relationship can be expressed as a ratio: chord length: are length is proportional to the sine of 1/2 of the included angle divided by the included angle (in radians). The derivation and utilization of this ratio will be discussed.


"WHITHER TRACE?" AN EXAMINATION OF THE CURRENT PRACTICE & FUTURE POTENTIAL OF TRACE EVIDENCE EXAMINATION"


TWO NEW PHENOTYPES OF HUMAN RED CELL PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE (EC 2. 7.5.1) REVEALED BY A COMBINATION OF AGAROSE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS AND ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING
J.M. WHITE, Forensic Science Services Orange County Sheriff-Coroner, Santa Ana, California 92702

Two blood samples submitted on separate cases were each classified as PGM, 2-1 by agarose gel electrophoresis (one sample was so classified in three laboratories, the other in two), isoelectric focusing of these samples was performed on 0.45 mm acrylamide gels (5% T 3% C, with 0.3 ml Servalyte® pH 5-7 and 0.3 ml Servalyte® pH 5-6 in 10 ml acrylamide stock). The first sample gave a pattern similar to the 1+1- phenotype, with the variant band shifted slightly anodal to the 1- position. The second sample had a band in the 1+ position and the variant band anodal to the 2+ position. Neither of these variants appear to coincide with previously reported rare variants observed by isoelectric focusing.


ARO ANTIGEN LEVELS DETERMINED FROM VAGINAL SWABS TAKEN FROM SEMEN FREE RAPE VICTIMS
HELEN PICCIOTTI, Student, University of California, Riverside, and FAYE SPRINGER, California Dept. of Justice, Riverside

Vaginal swabs taken from victims reporting rape and found to be free of seminal fluid were analyzed for acid phosphatase level, ABO antigen levels, and PGM activity. The procedure used for the analysis is A Systematic Approach to the Analysis of Semen Evidence reported by Edward Blake at the November CAC Seminar in 1980. The significance; of the antigen levels obtained from these samples will be discussed in relation to the ability to predict antigen types of semen donors in rape case vaginal swabs.


BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON "FEMALE V. EJACULATES"
G.F. SENSABAUGH, D.Crim., and D. KAHANE, B.A., Forensic Science Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley; Berkeley, Ca. 94720

The existence of a "female ejaculate" has been described in a recent report (J.Sex Research, Vol. 17, No. 1, Feb. 1981, pp. 13-21). This report indicated that the ejaculate is chemically distinct from urine and suggested that it contained elevated tartrate inhibitable acid phosphatase levels. This raised the question whether this material could be confused with semen in the analysis of sexual assault evidence. We have examined several "female ejaculate" samples with the following results:

  1. Acid phosphatase levels are comparable to vaginal fluid levels;
  2. No p30 has been detected;
  3. Protein profiles by SDS gel electrophoresis are dissimilar to semen. Thus whatever the "female ejaculate" is, it is not semen and would not be confused with semen in the analysis of sexual assault evidence.

FOOTWEAR EVIDENCE - AN UPDATE
J. D. DeHAAN, California Department of Justice, Technical Support Unit, 3301 C Street, Sacramento, CA 95816

Shoe, boot and sneaker impressions are fairly common at crime scenes and can provide an excellent means of linking a suspect closely with a criminal act. In spite of their potential value as identifying or corroborating evidence, however, footwear impressions seem to have fallen into disfavor among today's criminalists. This paper will review the use (and abuse) of footwear evidence and encourage its employment by reviewing newly published techniques for recovering evidence impressions (both surface and three-dimensional) and for producing convenient test prints in the lab for comparison purposes. Once a comparison is made, new data allows better information to be developed regarding individuality and class characteristics. This data and its application will be reviewed. The hazards of courtroom presentations of footwear evidence will also be examined.


AN EXPLORATION INTO THE EXISTING LITERATURE ON MICRO-CRYSTAL TEAT REAGENTS FOR DRUGS
HIRAM K. EVANS, R.A. Criminalistics Program, Department of Criminal Justice, California State University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90032

A considerable review of the existing literature on microcrystal test reagents for drugs has lead to the compilation of a approximately 100 reagents in a generalized order of their precipitating powers. An example of the application of this list will be given along with information regarding the effect of reagent media and the manner which same metallic reagents act to produce a precipitate.