70th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Fall 1987)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
October 22-24, 1987
Newport Beach, California
COCAINE BASE AND HYDROCHLORIDE IDENTIFICATION
Hiram Evans, Peter J. Vincle, Michelle L. Smith; San Bernardino County Sheriff's Department, Regional Forensic Science Laboratory, Post Office Box 1557, San Bernardino, CA 92402
In response to both present and proposed California legislation separating cocaine base and hydrochloride into controlled substance schedules I and II, respectively, there is technically a need to identify either the base or hydrochloride in cases of alleged possession for sale (11351, 11378 H&S) or sale (11352, 11379 H&S) of cocaine. Excipients and/or diluents in "street" samples may obscure anion tests and extractions may alter the anion present. Volatility coupled with a microcrystal test for identification of the base and optical crystallography/refractive index determination for identification of the hydrochloride were investigated. "Real criminalists" will appreciate from the presented literature data the blind trials of these complementary methods their applicability for accurate, fast, simple, and "black box"-free identification of cocaine base and hydrochloride.
FORENSIC APPLICATIONS UTILIZING A MODIFIED DRIFTS TECHNIQUE
L.J. Lee, Oakland Police Department, Criminalistics Section. Rm. 608, 455 7th Street, Oakland, CA 94607; Fred Walder & Sofia Bijasiewicz, Nicolet Analytical Instruments, 215 Fourier Ave., Fremont, CA 94539
The use of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy on various types of drug evidence has been reported by Suzuki. This is a report of some preliminary work which has been done which is ridiculously quick, ridiculously easy, sensitive, and useful using a variation of DRIFTS with silicon carbide sandpaper for sample preparation and analysis. Relatively small chips of paint and various drugs have been examined with good results.
N, N-DIMETHYLAMPHETAMINE - A "NEW" METHAMPHETAMINE ANALOG
J. Thomas Abercrombie, State of California, Department of Justice Criminalistics, Laboratory, P.O. Box 3679, Riverside, CA 92509
Since September of this year (1987), this laboratory as well as others in Southern California have been seeing a "new" (and currently non-controlled) methamphetamine analog. Called either N.N-dimethylamphetamine or N.N- -trimethylphenethylamine, this material is easily synthesized via reduction of 1-N- methylephedrine in any of a number of ways. Due to the fact that more than two tons of the precursor have recently been shipped to the less reputable chemical supply houses in our state, analytical profile data (color screening, microcrystalline, GC, UV, MS and IR) for that specific precursor as well as other possible precursors (d-N-methylephedrine, I and d-N-methylpseudoephedrine) and the finished products will be given.
DRUG ANALYSIS BY TLC/FTIR
J.A. Herman, Analect Instruments, 17819 Gillette Ave., Tustin, CA
A sample transfer approach to thin layer chromatography/fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TLC/FTIR) has been described by Schafer et al. that simultaneously and automatically moves the separation from the TLC plate to an IR transparent powder for diffuse reflectance measurement (1). Because the mobile phase can be made to flow sequentially in two directions as in two dimensional TLC, separation is accomplished in the first direction, and transfer in the second direction. An analytical standard containing lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and lysergic acid n-(methylpropyl) amide is analyzed. Also analyzed was the extracted sample of LSD. The separation is performed with a mobile phase of chloroform and methanol at 9-1 (v/v). Identification of all samples is possible at submicrogram levels using an automated spectral search of the Georgia State Crime Laboratory Library.
PRESENT STATUS OF THE ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BULLET-LEAD AND SHOTSHELL-PELIET EVIDENCE SPECIMENS
Vincent P. Guinn, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92717
At present, small samples of evidence specimens of lead projectiles are frequently analyzed quantitatively for Ag, Sb, As and Cu by nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and/or for Ag, Sb, Cu, and Bi by destructive inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP). The purpose of such analysis is usually to ascertain whether or not one or more Q specimens from victim(s) were produced from the same melt of lead as one or more K specimens associated with one or more suspects in a shooting case. The various problems connected with the interpretation of the analytical results will be discussed, and illustrated by actual case data.
PRESENTING GRAPHICS: THE SLIDES ARE THE MESSAGE
Duayne J. Dillon, Criminalistics Services Center, P.O. Box 488, Martinez, CA 94553
Slides and other presentation graphics can enhance the delivery of a technical paper and improve communication of its content to the audience. Unfortunately the quality and composition of slides all too often have the opposite effects of distracting viewers and confusing the message. This paper discusses a number of basic suggestions involving the use of text the selection of color and application of some design rules in the production and utilization of photographic transparencies.
THE ROLE OF TRACE EVIDENCE IN THE RETRIAL OF A 24-YEAR-OLD MURDER CASE
Gary V. Cortner, CA Dept of Justice, Fresno Regional Laboratory, 6014 N. Cedar Avenue, Fresno CA 93710
A retrial was ordered (or the defendant in the murder of Marlene Miller, a Hanford California, teenager that occurred 24 years ago. The retrial was ordered because the High Court said that "Blacks were systematically excluded from serving on the original Grand Jury" Most of the original evidence was stored by the Kings County Sheriff's Department, including the defendant's vehicle to the crime scene, the forensic analysis of such evidence, and its evidential value.
TWO NEW POLAROID INSTANT SLIDE FILMS AND SOME TECHNICAL TIPS ON IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF SLIDES FOR SEMINAR PREPARATIONS
Lucien Haag, Forensic Science Services, Inc., 4034 Luke Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85019
The Polaroid Corporation offers three 35mm instant slide film, two of which (Polagraph and PolaBlue) are particularly useful for technical presentations containing tabular or graphic material. The use of these films along with some technical tips for improving any slide presentation will is demonstrated.
SOFTWARE ENHANCEMENTS FOR A LABORATORY AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR REPETITIVE ANALYSES IN A FORENSIC LABORATORY
James Brackett, Laboratory of Criminalistics, Santa Clara County, 1557 Berger Drive, San Jose, CA 95112
Objectives: Maximal use of system, minimal operator participation, redundant customized summary reports of long runs of tests, auto daily reports of production and QC data, auto storage of data for auto demand detailed statistical information, cumulative QC data files for each analysis unit, and comprehensive error detection and correction. Customized blood and urine alcohol analysis is discussed, but similarly, blood and urine toxicological analysis for multiple analytes has also been developed. Differences between available "turnkey" and customized procedures are highlighted. Design plans, coding and our step-by-step procedures are briefly explained, illustrated with actual records and reports. The advantages are: several fold increase in productivity, increased precision, ease of manipulation of a huge (more that 100,000 cases), acceptance of the results by the end users. The absolute necessity for continual surveillance of system is stressed. Future developments are proposed.
CORRELATING AN OFFICER INVOLVED SHOOTING TO CRIME SCENE RECONSTRUCTION
Ed Deuel, Jay A. Mark; Huntington Beach Police Dept, 2000 Main St, Huntington Beach, CA 92648
In 1985 Sergeant Ed Deuel responded to a 211 PC silent alarm and was subsequently wounded by one of the two suspects. Sgt. Deuel during a fierce gun battle fatally wounded one suspect. The approach used by the HBPD was to immediately video tape the scene to ensure that all evidence was property documented. This tape along with a subsequent video was used to collaborate statements by the sergeant. This information made it possible to reconstruct the events surrounding the incident. This re-enactment along with the actual tapes will are compared and contrasted.
COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS ON VARIOUS FABRICS BY MEANS OF LASER, U.V. AND SUNLIGHT ILLUMINATION
Lisa Thompson, Huntington Beach Police Department, Scientific Investigation Unit, 2000 Main Street, Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Numerous stained fabrics were illuminated with various light sources in order to determine whether a particular fabric either enhanced or diminished the visibility of a particular stain. Each piece of fabric was stained with the following biological fluids: blood, semen, saliva, urine, blood and urine, blood and semen, semen and saliva. The fabrics were then allowed to air dry overnight. The three light sources used to illuminate the stained fabrics were Argon Laser, U.V., and Sunlight. Overall, the Argon Laser proved to be the most useful light source for visualizing differences among the various stained fabrics. Our results have shown that in most cases stained fabrics from different sources with similar fiber content have shown similar fluorescent patterns.
METHODS OF GENETIC MARKER TYPING: A SURVEY OF THE CURRENT "STATE OF THE ART"
Jan Bashinski, Oakland Police Department, Criminalistics Laboratory, 455 7th Street,
Oakland CA 94607; Barry Fisher, Los Angeles Sheriff's Office
In late 1986, the ASCLD Committee on Laboratory Evaluation and Standards conducted a nationwide survey to obtain a picture of electrophoresis methods and quality assurance practices being employed in forensic serology at that point in time. A total of 199 responses, representing roughly two thirds of the nation's crime laboratories, were received and tabulated. Approximately 81% of the responding labs did serology testing on stain evidence; of these, only 8 labs did not use electrophoretic tests. Of the 154 labs using electrophoresis, 53% routinely photographed their results. Most (80%) of the labs doing serology conducted some form of proficiency testing; 63% participated in at least one external proficiency testing program (e.g.) CTS or AABB. The most commonly used typing methods were the Group I, II, II and IV procedures of Wraxall et al. Many of the labs had modified these procedures; most of the modifications (e.g. substitution of Meldola blue for PMS) were relatively minor. This presentation discusses the survey results in more detail.
BREATH ACETONE: ITS PRODUCTION AND CONCENTRATION DURING PROLONGED EXERTION AND ITS CLEARANCE FROM THE HUMAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
Lucien C. Haag, Forensic Science Services, Inc., 4034 W Luke Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85019
Acetone has been demonstrated to be a normal constituent of expired breath with concentrations on the order of 1fg/L in normal healthy adults. The breath of an individual recovering from overexertion was measured 7 hours subsequent to the incident and found to contain approximately 70fg per liter acetone (equivalent to a blood-acetone level of 0.002%w/v) - a concentration still well below the 600 fg/L necessary to produce an apparent 0.01% BAC on a 4011AS Intoxilyzer. As an adjunct to this study, the clearance rate for acetone has also been studied and will be illustrated in this presentation. Acetone's slow removal from the system offers those concerned with its possible impact on non-specific IR instruments many hours subsequent to a DWI arrest to demonstrate its presence and concentration.
SEIZURE AND ANALYSIS OF A CLANDESTINE METHYLPHENIDATE LABORATORY
J. Thomas Abercrombie, California Department of Justice, Riverside Regional Laboratory, P.O. Box 3679, Riverside, CA 92509
In July of 1987 a clandestine methylphenidate laboratory was seized in Orange County. At that scene were found many buried packages of powders as well as other liquids and solids. Previous to any real identification of any material taking place, much research had had to be done on the synthetic routes used in manufacturing methylphenidate, since none of the various samples gave very specific results in terms of chemical or instrumental analyses. This presentation deals with the research necessary to begin the analysis of this case, as well as the actual analytical findings in this novel clandestine synthesis.
THE CHIGGER SPECIES EUTROMBICULA BELKINI (GOULD) (ACARI: TROMBICULIDAE) AS A FORENSIC TOOL IN A HOMICIDE INVESTIGATION IN VENTURA COUNTY
James P. Webb, M.B. Madon, S.G. Bennett, G.E. Greene and V. Herrick; Orange County Vector Control District, 13001 Garden Grove Blvd., Garden Grove, CA 92643
Field studies that concentrated on the presence or absence of human-attacking chigger mites at a number of selected sites associated with the homicide/rape of a 24-yr-old woman implicated an apprehended suspect who had numerous bites on his body. Chigger mites were collected by trapping, noosing, or shooting small mammals and lizards and placing black plastic squares (plates) under endemic shrubs. The heaviest concentration of chiggers was recovered near the homicide scene while other similar localities yielded none to few larvae. The occurrence of relatively rare human-infesting mites at the homicide site, the concurrent bites on 20 members of the search team, and the bites on the suspect indicated that there was a high probability that the suspect had been at the crime scene during the same relative time period.
PROJECTILE-INDUCED MECHANICAL AND THERMAL EFFECTS IN FIBERS
Lucien C. Haag, Forensic Science Services, Inc., 4034 W. Luke Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85019
Bullet wiping around the margins of bullet holes has served as the routine means for verifying such defects as bullet-caused. In certain situations however, bullet wiping may be absent or not detectable. With certain synthetic fibers, mechanical and thermal effects may be induced by a bullet's passage through the fabric or garment which are discernible under polarized light microscopy. These effects take the form of partial melting of the abraded, severed ends of the fibers frequently with a reduction or complete removal of the fiber's normal birefringence at the severed ends. Low velocity/low energy means of producing otherwise similar defects in garments or fabrics (e.g. forcing a pencil through the fabric) will not induce such changes.
ON TRIAL, LEE HARVEY OSWALD
Vincent P. Guinn, Department of Chemistry, University of California, lrvine, CA 92717
In July of 1986, London Weekend Television filmed a very authentic mock trial of Lee Harvey Oswald. In November, a 6-hour condensed version (of the 18 hours filmed) was shown worldwide. The "trial" was conducted exactly like a real U.S. trial, with witnesses in sequence, direct and cross examinations, etc. There was no script and there were no retakes. A Dallas judge presided and 14 jurors were flown over from Dallas. Vincent Bugliosi was the prosecuting attorney; Jerry Spence the defense attorney and they fought "tooth and nail". All the witnesses were actual eye witnesses to the 1963 Dallas assassination of President Kennedy, or expert witnesses who took part in the Warren Commission or 1977 Select Committee investigations. The speaker describes the main findings of the investigations, his own work, and testimony on the bullet lead evidence specimens, and the verdict of the jury.