43rd SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Spring 1974)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
MN ANTIGEN TYPING
Francis A. Fitzpatrick and George F. Sensabaugh, School of Criminology, University of California, Berkeley
The difficulties of MN antigen typing are observed with dried blood stains as well as with fresh cell suspensions. Postulated MN antigenic structures which aid in explaining the immuno-chemical basis for these phenomena will be considered. The use and specificity of lectins and antisera will be discussed.
THE APPLICATION OF LEAD ISOTOPE RATIO MEASUREMENTS TO BULLET IDENTIFICATION
Gary W. Stupian, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo
The utilization of lead isotope ratio analysis for the individualization of bullets is considered. Lead displays wide variations in isotopic composition depending upon its place of origin. The variable isotopic composition of lead has been utilized by archeologists to determine the origin of ancient artifacts. The origin of lead particulates in polluted atmospheres has also been traced by isotope ratio analysis. Lead isotope ratio analysis, especially when utilized in conjunction with trace element analysis, could conceivably provide police investigators with a greater capacity for bullet individualization than has been available in the past. The results of some isotope ratio analyses on bullet lead from different brands of ammunition are presented.
ALCOHOL AND DRIVING
Grace Schwartz and Darrell Clardy, Orange County Sheriff's Department Crime Laboratory
In December, 1973 at the Orange County Raceway a controlled drinking and driving study was conducted. Impairment was observed in demeanor and in driving skill. The results and their correlation to driving will be discussed.
INFORMAL TALK: "THE DRUG SCENE NATIONALLY"
Donald W. Johnson, Scientific Services Division, Drug Enforcement Administration, Washington, D.C. 20537
DEA's (Drug Enforcement Administration) organization and any recent changes that may have had an effect on the laboratory system; DEA's Stride (System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence), ballistics and manpower Utilization computer programs and their use; DEA's Workshop on Drug Intelligence held at Columbia, Maryland, January l6-l8, 1974 with state and local crime laboratory directors; and new or unusual occurrences of drugs or trends in the drug problem nationally will be discussed.
RADIOIMMUNOASSAY OF DRUGS: STATE OF THE ART
Vina R. Spiehler and Robert H. Cravey, Beckman Instruments, Inc., Fullerton and Department of the Sheriff-Coroner, Orange County, respectively
By using immunological reagents and radioactive labels, radioimmuno-assay (RIA) methods are able to detect and quantify drugs directly in blood, serum, or urine in the picogram (10-12g) range without extraction or isolation. The fundamental principles of radioimmunoassay will be presented. Instrumentation required and commercial kits and methods now available for drug detection will be reviewed. The authors' experience and evaluation of various RIA procedures as compared to other methods of drug analysis will be discussed.
FBI PROGRAM FOR CRIME LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT
Thomas F. Kelleher, Jr., FBI Laboratory
An informal discussion of the cooperative program with state and local crime laboratories for specialized scientific training, research, organization and communication. A review of activities at the National Symposium on Crime Laboratory Development held at the FBI Academy In December, 1973, and plans for future symposia on crime laboratory matters. Details concerning current efforts aimed at implementation of this program with participation by state and local crime laboratories.
IMPROVED ALKALOID DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION USING A NEW THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC (TLC) SYSTEM
Donald W. Jones, George Shernan, DeWitt T. Hunter, Sierra Laboratories, Inc., l88 College Way, Auburn
An investigation was directed toward the simplification of alkaloid analysis by TLC. All aspects of the total sequence, extraction inoculation, development and staining were investigated and significantly modified. Several hundred patient specimens and standard drug solutions were tested both by the new and conventional procedures. In the new procedure, 5ml of specimen was mixed with 3 ml of each solvent which was then evaporated to dryness on a 1/8" silicic acid glass fiber disc contained in a warm evaporating plate. This disc and 4 standard discs containing 22 alkaloids were inserted into a SA glass fiber sheet and developed by ammoniated ethyl acetate. The dried sheets were then successively immersed into Wandelin's and modified Dragendorf's solutions with intervening water washes. This modified technique provided excellent sensitivity with threshold detection at the 1 gamma level per ml for most drugs studied; a significantly improved R.F. Discrimination between closely related drugs; reduced technical effort input; and most important, a broad spectrum of color differentiation between the various drugs. The standard discs have been shown to be stable for over two years. The procedure afforded advantages and innovations not heretofore described or available.
THE USE OF VIDEO TAPE IN THE PROSECUTION OF THE IMPAIRED DRIVER
Raymond A. Jensen, Scientific Investigation Division, San Diego County Sheriff's Department
Video Taping of impaired drivers has been considered by some law enforcement agencies as a valid and effective tool for reducing the number of court trials. Some law enforcement agencies in California highly recommend the use of video tape while others question its total effectiveness. The attitudes of law enforcement officials and district attorneys will be presented, as well as statistics collected from some agencies in Calif. who are in the process of using video tape.
PATTERNED INJURIES WHERE THE PATHOLOGIST AND THE CRIMINALIST MEET
Harold Kade, M.D., Office of the Medical Examiner-Coroner, Ventura County
Injuries to a body, sustained from various objects, instruments or weapons, may have characteristic patterns or configurations. Through vigilant awareness and analytical scrutiny, the experienced observer may recognize the nature and source, analogous to "tool-mark" identification.
A CASE OF FALSIFIED EVIDENCE
J. Ragle, R, Wagner, P. Jones, Orange County Sheriff's Department Crime Laboratory; Aerospace Corporation
An exhibit introduced in federal court by a local police agency was alleged to be a fingerprint lifted from a bank counter. This evidence resulted in the conviction of the suspect for armed robbery. Five years after the conviction, the lift was submitted for evaluation. The conclusions of the examination were that 1) the fingerprint was that of the convict, but 2) it did not consist of fingerprint powder and 3) it had been lifted from a "Xerox" type photocopy of the 211 PC suspect's fingerprint card.
COMPUTER PROCESSING OF PICTORIAL EVIDENCE
James L. Harris, Sr., Visibility Laboratory, Scripp's Institution of Oceanography
This paper will discuss the use of the computer for processing of evidence of a pictorial type. Emphasis will be placed upon attempting to develop a clear understanding of both the potential and limitations of these techniques. Examples of computer processed pictures will be shown.
A RAPID METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF LSD USING ULTRA-VIOLET DEGRADATION
P.J. Cashman, Contra Costa County
LSD, as both salt and free base, has been found to react to produce a number of products when dissolved in various solvents and exposed to ultra-violet light. Thin-layer chromatograms of these solutions exhibit reproducible patterns of the degradation products which can be used to effect an identification of both pure and previously degraded LSD.
TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF ACID PHOSPHATASES
D. Lofgren., E. Blake and G. Sensabaugh, Criminalistics-Forensic Science Program, School of Criminology, University of California, Berkeley
In an effort to answer the question regarding the uniqueness of seminal acid phosphatase, we have initiated a study on the tissue distribution of acid phosphatases. Gel filtration has been used for the primary separation of acid phosphatases differing in molecular weight; each molecular weight class of acid phosphatases has been further characterized by electrophoresis, substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors. These results provide the content for considering the tissue uniqueness of prostatic and acid phosphatase and its differentiation from vaginal acid phosphate.
DETECTION OF LEAD IN GUNSHOT RESIDUES ON TARGETS USING THE SODIUM RHODIZONATE TEST
Jan S. Bashinski, John E. Davis, and Chester Young, Oakland Police Department
The sodium rhodizonate test has long been used as a spot test for the detection of lead, barium, and strontium (1). More recently, the test has been employed for the detection of gunshot residue on hands (2,3) and on targets ((4).). The test is most sensitive when applied in a dilute acid medium (such as pH2.8 tartaric acid), but under these conditions, a few other metal ions interfere. Five percent HCl can be added to the sodium rhodizonate metal complex, causing colors produced by the interfering ions to fade away, leaving only a blue-violet color for lead and a bright pink color for barium. Although the addition of HCl improves the specificity of the reaction, it also decreases the sensitivity about ten-fold, for the color of the lead-rhodizonate complex fades in the presence of strong acid.
COMPARISON OF GLASS FRAGMENTS BY THEIR PHOTOLUMINESCENCE PROPERTIES
Peter F. Jones and Robert S. Hesbitt, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo
For the individualization of glass fragments, photoluminescence spectroscopy appears to be a powerful adjunct to density and refractive index measurements. Due to large-scale automation in window glass manufacture, both the refractive index and densities observed for the majority of glass fragments fall within a very narrow range. For 143 samples taken from previous cases of the Orange Co. Sheriff's Dept., 50% of the samples had a refractive index between 1.5160 and 1.5180. In our preliminary studies we have found that for 13 glass chips that were indistinguishable by refractive index measurement, 12 ranging in value from 10 mm to 1 mm in diameter have been used by us. The phosphorescence emission spectra are recorded using five separate wavelengths of excitation (corresponding to five peaks in the phosphorescence excitation spectra). Comparison of glass fragments is based upon the ratios of maxima in the phosphorescence spectra. The total analysis time per sample is 15-20 minutes. Experiments are continuing with additional samples. Variables such as sample temperature, size, trace impurity content, and location in a window pane are being investigated.
SIMPLIFIED HYPNOTIC DETECTION USING THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY
George Sherman, Donald W. Jones, DeWitt T. Hunter, Sierra Laboratories, Inc., 188 College Way, Auburn
A study was undertaken to simplify and improve conventional hypnotic assay systems to provide greater sensitivity and resolution. Several hundred patient specimens and prepared standards were analyzed in parallel by both the new system and conventional techniques and compared in terms of resolution, sensitivity and technical effort and special equipment required. In the modified procedure, 2 ml of serum or plasma was agitated with 3 ml of solvent in a tube containing 5 ml of saturated zinc chloride solution. The solvent extract was rapidly evaporated to dryness in a warmed spot plate, containing a small 1/8" silica acid glass fiber disc. This disc was inserted into a sheet of SA glass paper. Standard discs containing 7 barbiturates were placed in similar holes near the origin. These standard discs can be prepared or obtained commercially. Ammoniated ethyl acetate was used for development and the dried strip was immersed into diphenylcarbazone, dried and dipped successively into silver acetate and mercuric sulfate solutions. By all parameters, the modified procedure gave superior results to the older methods. Spots were small and discrete. Background due to break-down products and non-specific staining was virtually nil. The standard discs proved to be stable for over 2 years. The threshold of detection was estimated at 0.2 mg/100 ml for all drugs tested. The simplified procedure enabled significant economy in equipment requirements and technical effort. The procedure incorporates several innovations not previously employed in general toxicology.
IDENTIFICATION OF DRIED HUMAN BLOOD SAMPLES BY HLA ANTIGENS
M. Taltasugi, D. Akira, and P.I. Terasaki, Department of Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles
Detection and analysis of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) has advanced rapidly in the last 5 years because of its importance in organ trans¬plantation. This genetic system controls approximately 30 antigens at two closely linked loci with each individual possessing from two to four antigens. For the most common HLA profile in the Caucasian population, the possibility of unrelated individuals with identical antigens is one in 400 and this probability decreases rapidly with the less common antigens. HLA antigens are detected serologically by reactions with specific antibodies. Until recently, HLA typing of individuals has been confined to testing living cells. The presence of soluble HLA antigens in serum of individuals said their stability after clotting and drying has allowed detection of the antigen in dried blood samples which have been stored for over 2 months. Demonstration of the identification of one sample from five HLA typed donors indicates promise for application of HLA serology to identify blood samples.
SURVEY OF BLOOD ANALYSIS PRACTICES CURRENTLY CONDUCTED IN CRIME LABORATORIES
G.C. Denault, H.H. Takimoto and E.J. Rattin
Twenty-six criminalistics laboratories located throughout the U.S. as well as one in Canada were contacted to determine the extent of the use of serological evidence in the law enforcement field and to define some of the problem areas associated with forensic blood analyses. Primarily, only laboratories reported to be conducting extensive serological analyses were selected in this survey, and thus, the results are not representative of the analyses being performed in a typical criminalistics laboratory. The survey showed that the specific analyses carried out by the practicing serologists were, for the most part, restricted to the identification of the evidence as blood, species determination, and ABO typing. Approximately one-third or less of the laboratories were found to be engaged in the analyses of Rh, MN, and PGM variants, and then only in a low percentage of cases involving blood. Some of the reasons for the limited use of serological evidence in criminal investigation are given. Data concerning typical evidence condition due to collection procedures as well as transit time between collection point and crime lab will also be presented.
A POSSIBLE FORENSIC ACTIVATION ANALYSIS SERVICE FOR CALIFORNIA LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
Vincent P. Guinn, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine
A possibility that is being seriously considered by the author will be described - the possibility of setting up a forensic activation analysis (FAA) service, available in selected cases to California law enforcement agencies at no cost, at the University of California at Irvine. If the reaction of the CAC membership to this possible service is sufficiently encouraging, the author will proceed to seek the necessary (modest-scale) financial support - probably from the CCCJ or the LEAA. If the reaction of the CAC membership is negative, the project will be dropped forthwith. If CAC reaction is encouraging, and funding is obtained, the author will proceed to implement the program, working very closely with CAC members. If the service develops and proves to be quite useful the author will train additional personnel at UCI, so that more cases can be handled. Forensic activation analysis, to be performed properly and to be of real use, requires a considerable amount of equipment (e.g., a fairly high-flux nuclear reactor, good Ge(Li) and Nal (T1) gamma-ray spectrometers, and good computing facilities), and personnel experienced in both neutron activation analysis (NAA) and criminalistics. Our facilities at U.C. Irvine for such work are excellent. The author has extensive experience in the field of NAA, and more modest experience, but strong and continuing interest in, the field of criminalistics. The proposed service would include presentation of the FAA results in court, when called for. Since the University of California is a State of California facility, it seems appropriate to the author to thus engage in a service that would be of benefit to law enforcement in California. Also use of the University facilities would enable the service to be conducted on a non-profit basis, at minimum cost to the funding agency. At the May 1974 Semiannual Seminar of the CAC, the author will describe the proposed service in greater detail, and will describe the kinds of evidence materials for which the FAA method has thus far been sufficiently established to make it a sound method for application in selected criminal cases.
A REVIEW OF THE PRESENT STATUS OF FORENSIC ACTIVATION ANALYSIS
Vincent P. Guinn, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine
Since the author has recently completed a lengthy review article on the subject of forensic activation analysis (FAA) for Annual Reviews of Nuclear Science, It seems timely to present a summary of the status of this field to the membership of the CAC. This method, like many new "exotic" methods when first applied to the field of crime investigation, has had its ups and downs. Some of the early optimism has been shown to be unjustified. Some criminologists who have endeavored to apply the FAA method to some actual cases have been disappointed - some even to the point that they seem to feel that the method is useless. Fortunately, the situation is nowhere near as bad as some think. Along with the failures of the method, there have been an even larger number of successes. Furthermore, the reasons for some of the early failures or partial failures of the method are now well understood. As more research in the method has accumulated, and as more interplay between the professional criminalist and the activation analyst has developed, the method is now on much firmer footing than was true earlier. We now have a much better understanding of the kind of evidence samples that can be meaningfully and reliably analyzed or compared by the FAA method. We have a better understanding of the instances in which use of the FAA method can be of real value to the criminalist - as well as of those instances in which regular criminalists laboratory methods are already quite sufficient. We now recognize much better certain conditions that evidence samples must satisfy if meaningful results concerning them are to be possible by the FAA - for example time-lapse factors in the measurement of gunshot residues and in the comparison of hair specimens. As an example, the FBI Laboratory's FAA group has done an excellent Job of delineating many of these factors, as they pertain to actual case samples, and uses the method in a large number of cases-each year - of selected kinds of evidence specimens. Improvements in our gamma-ray spectrometry capabilities in recent years have also considerably improved the capabilities of the FAA method. The author will attempt to summarize the presently recognized pros and cons of the method for the examination of a number of kinds of important evidence-type materials.
TYPING OF PGM VARIANTS IN DRIED BLOOD STAINS BY THE GRUNBAUM METHOD OF CELLULOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS
Patricia L. Zajac and A.T. Spraque, Criminalistics Laboratory, Alameda County Sheriff’s Office
A rapid, simplified method is described for the determination of Phosphoglucomutase types in bloodstains by electrophoresis utilizing a cellulose acetate support medium. the method, developed by Grunbaum for PGM typing of hemolysates and whole fresh blood, has been successfully applied to dried bloodstains as encountered in evidence, and varying in age up to 20 months. The procedures enable good resolution and identification of the PGM variants in a total analysis time of less than 90 minutes and requires on1y submicrogram amounts of sample. The cellulose acetate PGM electrophoretogram is subsequently retained as a permanent record of the analysis.
A TOOL MARK IDENTIFICATION BY DIRECT COMPARISON OF TOOL EDGE STRIATIONS WITH EVIDENCE IMPRESSIONS
Anthony Sprague, Criminalistics Laboratory, Alameda County Sheriff's Office
A technique is described that permits a rapid photographic identification of impressed striae in a tool mark with the corresponding matching area of striations on the ground edge of the responsible tool. The technique includes the taking of separate photographs of the "negative" impressed striae of the evidence mark and the "positive" striae of the tool edge, at the same magnification while using opposite-end oblique lighting.