129th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Spring 2017)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
May 9-12, 2017
San Francisco, California
CAC FOUNDER'S LECTURE: THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN CRIMINALISTICS - ARE WE GOING THE WRONG WAY?
John D. DeHaan, Ph.D., FCSFS, CFI, FIFireE, F-ABC (Fire Debris)-Emeritus
Criminalistics can be defined as the application of the physical sciences to law-science matters by the recognition, collection, identification, individualization, and interpretation of physical evidence. Science is the fundamental underlying approach to these responsibilities. There are many disciplines and specialties within criminalistics, but the one common feature is Science. Science is the quest for truth in the physical world. The facts and conclusions reached are sometimes in conflict with the accepted knowledge of the authorities. In our cases, that means we are almost always in conflict with someone's concepts!
I am troubled by the loss of trace evidence analysis in today's crime labs. Trace evidence is what often provides context to the more clinical types of evidence such as blood and other body fluids. Trace evidence permits association of an individual to another person, a scene, or event, but also provides a means of exclusion. Crime scene reconstruction is often an essential part of an investigation (in civil as well as criminal events). Today, most criminalists never see a scene and there is pressure from some quarters that the criminalist should never have information about the scene or the purported events and just do what is requested on the form (because that information is presumed to create bias). That is NOT science!
In many states (and the Federal Courts), we have judges deciding what is good science and what is not, thanks to the Daubert Decision. Nearly all judges were lawyers first, and almost never have scientific education. Instead of turning to other scientists in the discipline (as in Frye states), they turn to "consultants", who often have no knowledge of the scientific issues involved. They can inject their own biases without restriction.
We are now faced with the specter of being "allowed" to do only tests and procedures that have been approved by a diffuse administrative body of government-selected "experts". This is not science. This means that the weird and interesting one-off cases (particularly scene reconstructions) will no longer have answers, let alone solutions supported by independent scientific enquiries.
As a body of scientists, we have done many great things over the last hundred years or so, solved a lot of crimes, helped clear the wrongly-accused as well as identified the wrong-doer. We have helped the triers of fact understand what happened as well as the "who-dun-it". The Brave New World of mandated testing is a scary proposition. As I step away from the discipline, I have no solutions, except to hold onto the science of criminalistics.
FORENSIC ANALYSIS USING MULTIMODAL-FTIR AND RAMAN
Michael S. Bradley, Ph.D., M.B.A. Senior Manager, Product Applications FT-IR, FT-IR Microscopy, Raman and NIR Thermo Fisher Scientific
FTIR and Raman are both SWGDRUG category A techniques that are very popular among forensic analyst for easy and non-destructive identification of samples. But in today's world, where materials are getting smaller and more complex, advanced FTIRs techniques are required. During this workshop, we will discuss various multimodal methods as well as the significance of measurement of various samples in the Far-IR region.
CRIME GUN PROCESSING: GETTING YOUR STAKEHOLDERS WHAT THEY NEED - WHEN THEY NEED IT
Brandon Huntley, Ron Nichols, Peter Gagliardi, Ultra Electronics Forensic Technology Inc.
This presentation will identify best practices and encourage a good hard look to determine if there are ways in which evidence in the traditional sense and forensic intelligence in the more modern, may be able meet the challenges of today's rising levels of gun related crime in order to seek justice for the victims, resolution for their families and restore peace to their neighborhoods. It has been said that every crime gun holds a story. Some of the story is generated from inside - often referred to as internal ballistics. Some of it from the outside such as: latent fingerprints, DNA and various types of trace evidence. The presentation will explore the broad question: Is gun crime a priority there and is your lab truly collaborating or just cooperating when attempting to meet the needs of your police and prosecutor stakeholders in terms of developing crime evidence and intelligence. The ultimate goal of the presentation would be to provide crime lab leaders with actionable information to take back to their labs and continue the pursuit of excellence in all aspects of operation.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CODIS DNA HIT FOLLOW-UP: A CASE REVIEW OF SECONDARY DNA TRANSFER AND THE INDIVIDUAL WRONGFULLY CHARGED WITH MURDER
Tahnee Mehmet, Criminalist; Kevin Smith, Deputy District Attorney, Santa Clara County District Attorney's Office and Crime Lab
The learning objective of this presentation is to share the case specifics of likely the first documented case of secondary DNA transfer of an innocent individual at a crime scene. The discovery of this individual's DNA profile on the fingernails of the decedent incorrectly implicated him as one of the perpetrators of the homicide, consequently forcing him to serve several months in county jail before his alibi was discovered. This case highlights the extreme importance of conducting proper follow-up investigations once an individual is associated to a crime scene via DNA evidence.
VICTIM SEXUAL ASSAULT EVIDENCE KITS - THE OPD CRIME LAB AND ALAMEDA COUNTY DISTRICT ATTORNEY'S OFFICE TEAMWORK
Jennifer S. Mihalovich - Oakland Police Department Criminalistics Laboratory, Erin Kingsbury - Alameda Co. DA's Office
The Oakland Police Department Criminalistics Laboratory developed a plan for analyzing victim sexual assault evidence kits to meet the AB 1517 requirements; called the Contemporary Victim Kit Program. The Program goals are to analyze all victim sexual assault evidence kits, enter eligible DNA profiles into CODIS within ten business days, and provide reports to the investigators within twenty business days. This Program requires the support of the county hospital SART, OPD investigators, OPD property room staff, Forensic Biology Unit scientists, and Alameda County District Attorneys. This Program has been in place since May 2014. This presentation will describe the teamwork, laboratory's analysis approach and results, OPD's investigations and District Attorney's prosecution of the cases in the Program.
COMBINING DNA TESTING AND CRIME SCENE RECONSTRUCTION TO SOLVE A ROBBERY-HOMICIDE
Adam Dutra, San Diego Police Department
In mid-2016, a home invasion robbery turned deadly as an escaping victim was shot. Initially, no suspects were identified. DNA testing, assisted by probabilistic genotyping, helped to identify several suspects. Crime scene reconstruction and additional DNA testing helped solidify the case.
THE FORENSIC TECHNOLOGY CENTER OF EXCELLENCEâ€”CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT OF LABORATORY EFFICIENCY AND TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION
Megan Grabenuaer, RTI International
The National Institute of Justice's (NIJ) Forensic Technology Center of Excellence (FTCoE) at RTI International manages the testing and evaluation of emerging technologies applicable to forensic science. FTCoE programs and knowledge sharing place promising innovations in the hands of forward-thinking practitioners, stakeholders, and policy makersâ€”which benefit laboratory efficiencies, implementation of technologies, and quality leadership.
These goals are achieved through technical evaluations and assistance, workshops and symposiums, working groups, landscape studies, and guidance resources.
Over the past 5 years, the FTCoE has engaged and provided support to tens of thousands of individuals in the criminal justice community. This presentation will provide an overview of the FTCoE's goals and mission, as well as an update of recent FTCoE activities and plans for continuous improvement within the program. Exemplary FTCoE activities include technical evaluations and guidance documents on optical topography; handheld breath alcohol analyzers; the use of rapid DNA by forensic laboratories; a mobile app and forensic medical glossary for sexual assault; and working groups specific for crime laboratory directors, human factors, and optical topography. By providing these essential resources, the FTCoE promotes changes in forensic science policy and procedure, which can improve criminal justice and public safety practices on a national scale. This update will also provide information about upcoming events related to Rapid DNA and Impression, Pattern Trace Evidence and inform attendees how to take advantage of services provided by the FTCoE.
SWAP THE SWAB: IMPROVED DNA STABILITY AND RECOVERY OF EVIDENTIARY SAMPLES
Dan Watsula, MS; Allie Flores, BS; Jangbir Sangha, MA; and Robert Bever, Ph.D. Bode Cellmark Forensics
Collecting a sample from an individual or from a crime scene is only part of the equation. The true success is when that profile can be used to identify a missing person, solve a crime, or exonerate a wrongfully convicted individual etc. Through the use of new preservative based products, investigators and analysts can be confident that the DNA sample they collected has not deteriorated prior to analysis.
THE DANA IRELAND CASE
Alan Keel Forensic Analytical; Dr. David Haymer, U of Hawaii
The rape/murder of a young girl in Hawaii for which three men were convicted in 1998. California scientists worked for the prosecution and defense and all three men were eliminated as the semen source. Post-conviction litigation is on-going and continuous efforts are being pursued by scientists and the Hawaii Innocence Project.
A CURIOUS CASE OF FIRING PIN MARKS
Jessica Winn CA DOJ BFS Fresno Crime Lab
An interesting case will be presented where firing pin aperture shear marks were observed on cartridge cases fired in a 38 Special revolver. An attempted homicide case was submitted to the laboratory. The agency requested that test fires from a 38 Special revolver be compared to bullets and cartridge cases recovered from the scene. Although, the bullet comparison yielded inconclusive results; an unknown, but unique, mark was observed on the primer of the questioned cartridge cases. This unknown mark was used to identify one of the questioned cartridge cases to the test-fired cartridge cases from the 38 Special revolver. It was determined during the firearms examination that the unknown mark was produced from the revolvers firing pin aperture and was most likely a result of a manufacturer defect.
MULTIDISCIPLINARY EFFORT TO IDENTIFY THE CAMBRIAN NEIGHBORHOOD CAT KILLER
Michelle Bell, Jeremiah Garrido, Santa Clara Co Crime Lab.; Christina Lindquist, UC Davis- Veterinary Genetics Lab. Forensic Unit; Alexandria Ellis, Deputy DA, Santa Clara Co.; Dr. Sharon Ostermann, San Jose Animal Care Center
In this case study presentation, each member of the multidisciplinary team will highlight their efforts to evaluate and analyze the feline victims and the physical evidence that was crucial to linking Robert Farmer to many more victims than was originally anticipated.
SHOOTING INCIDENT ANALYSIS: WAS THE KNIFE IN THE HAND?
Jason Alexander, SCSCA ANITE Group
A complex officer involved shooting incident is presented with details on the analysis performed to make determinations on shooting locations, movement of the suspect, bullet strike locations. The analysis and reconstruction utilized principles of wound ballistics research, blood spatter analysis, external and terminal ballistics as well as performance testing.
689 SHOTS - THE BANK OF THE WEST CRITICAL INCIDENT INVESTIGATION
Ronald Welsh California DOJ, Central Valley Laboratory
At 2:10 PM on July 16, 2014 three heavily armed gang members attempted to rob a Stockton branch of the Bank of the West. The incident rapidly spiraled out of control into the taking of hostages, a high speed pursuit, and one of the largest shootouts in American history. The incident left two of the robbers and an innocent hostage dead, and forever changed the Stockton Police Department. This presentation gives an overview of the incident with an emphasis on the laboratory's role in the Officer-Involved Shooting Protocol and the subsequent investigation.
IDENTIFICATION OF THE OAKLAND WAREHOUSE FIRE VICTIMS
Jonathan Schell, Karen Tsai, Missing Persons DNA Program Jan Bashinski DNA Laboratory; Erin Dunkley, Alameda County Sheriff's Office Crime Lab; Captain Ditzenberger, Sergeant MacIntire, Lieutenant Vandagriff, Alameda County SO Coroner's Bureau
This presentation will briefly cover the history of the warehouse, the DNA methods used to identify victims, and the post-fire recovery efforts. Identification through Rapid DNA and DNA kinship testing was combined with traditional identification methods of dental records, fingerprints, and visual markings to identify all 36 victims.
GLAMOROUS DEPRAVITY, SAN FRANCISCO'S CRIMINAL PAST
Paul Drexler, Crooks Tour of San Francisco
We will explore the reasons for San Francisco's unique criminal past and discuss the exploits of Isaiah Lees, San Francisco's greatest detective. We'll also examine some of Bay area's most intriguing cases, including those of legendary criminologists E.O. Heinrich and Paul Kirk.
SFDA VICTIM SERVICES DIVISION
Jacqueline Ortiz, Dr. Gena Castro-Rodriguez, Pink and Red, SFDA Victim Services Division
Agenda: SFDA Victim Services Division, Overview of Facility Dog Program, Facility Dogs in the Courtroom, Other Areas of Interest, Questions, References and Resources, Contact Information
John Buckleton, ESR
This talk will cover the current shift in DNA interpretation methods towards probabilistic genotyping. It will describe some recent difficulties with CPI including the lab closures at DFS (District of Columbia), Austin Texas and the more general reappraisal in Texas. The greater power and versatility of PG is a positive motivating aspect and will be discussed. PG methods are all LR based and the use of verbal scales to inform fact finders will be discussed. The core functionality of STRmix and the Monte Carlo Markov Chain process with be described. The recent PCAST report and meetings with software developers is discussed. Also outlined is the response to these criticisms. Recent court rulings and challenges to STRmix are described.
BREAKING UP IS EASY: THE UNCOUPLING OF SEROLOGICAL AND DNA TESTS IN BLOOD EXPOSED TO UV LIGHT
Mallory, A., Lionudakis Perez, C., and Ballard, R. California State University, Sacramento
Forensic scientists use a variety of presumptive and confirmatory tests when screening evidence for blood. Typically, a visual examination is conducted to identify possible stains, followed by a presumptive test (e.g. Kastle Mayer, Hemastix) to narrow the focus. Stains that test positive may then be further analyzed for human blood (e.g. HemDirect, RSIDblood) prior to downstream DNA genotyping. In this flow of analysis, there is an underlying assumption that true human blood stains will test positive in both the presumptive and confirmatory assays, and that these assays are coupled - i.e a stain that is presumptively negative for blood would not test positive in a confirmatory assay for human blood, and would not yield human DNA. Furthermore, stains that test positive in a presumptive test and negative in a confirmatory test are likely non-probative.
THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ILLICIT SUBSTANCES CONTAINING HETERO-CYCLIC AMINES BY UTILIZING COPPER IODIDE AS A PHOTO-LUMINESCENT INDICATOR
Andrea Christine Ortiz, Francisco Javier Sepulveda, David Nash, Richard G. Blair PhD, Jay R. Vargas PhD CSU-LA
Presumptive drug testing performed in the field, for example color tests, can sometimes result in false positives and false negatives especially with newer designer drugs that have reached the street. In efforts to strengthen presumptive drug testing, the aim of this thesis project is to test the application of a method that uses copper iodide (CuI) as a fluorescent indicator for illicit substances that contain heterocyclic amines in their chemical structure. The dissolved controlled substance is added to a copper iodide solution and into a 96 Nunc black well micro plate. The micro plate is then analyzed using a Molecular Devices-Spectra Max i3 plate reader and unique fluorescent data is generated. The hypothesis is that each substance will have its own unique fluorescence signal due to the complex formed with CuI. This test has the potential of being more discriminatory than standard color tests alone. The data was obtained in collaboration with a research group at the University of Central Florida that is in the process of creating a handheld device for its use in presumptive testing performed in the field.
POST MORTEM CHANGES IN ANTE MORTEM ANAGEN HAIRS FOLLOWING LONG TERM VS. SHORT TERM SUBMERSION IN VARIOUS SOLUTIONS
Maya Hamade , Dr. Katherine Roberts CSU-LA
This study was performed for the purpose of evaluating postmortem morphology changes in ante mortem anagen head hairs following long term (147 - 212 days) submersion in eight different solutions. The morphology of these hairs was compared with the results obtained for the short term (14 -23 days) submersion of the corresponding hair samples in the same solutions. The samples were collected from 25 living subjects and the root end of each hair was submerged in each solution. The short term submersion component of this research was performed in a previous study. For the long term submersion study, these same hair samples were removed from their respective solutions, permanently mounted, observed under a polarized light microscope and photographed.
NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF DRUGS OF ABUSE USING FRESHWATER PLANARIANS
Leo Heng Yen Lai, Helen Ha, Apryl Huerta, Dr. Jay R. Vargas California State University, Los Angeles
Freshwater planarians are invertebrate animals famous for their regenerative ability. They exhibit a body plan similar to vertebrates that include bilateral symmetry with head and tail and most importantly an aggregated of nerve cells in the head containing many neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter receptors commonly found in higher order species. By exploiting these characteristics, this research utilizes the planarian animal model to construct a tool for the pharmacological and toxicological screening of control substances. The ultimate goal of this project is to help forensic science practitioners and lawmakers better understand the pharmacological profile of drugs including the endless stream of novel designer compounds that a major concern to law enforcement and society. Preliminary results focused on narcotics and stimulant drugs will be presented and discussed.
RESOLUTION OF MALE/FEMALE EPI-EPI CELL MIXTURES USING FLOW-FISH TECHNOLOGY
Harris, C., Preciado, A. and Ballard, R. Cal. St. U., Sacramento
Sexual assault evidence often yields a mixture of DNA from both the female victim and male perpetrator. When spermatozoa are present in these mixtures, isolation of male DNA is relatively simple because the fragile female epithelial cells can be separated from the more robust sperm cells prior to DNA typing. However, separation of the male and female components in male/female epithelial cell mixtures is problematic (e.g. oral copulation, vasectomized male). All cells in the mixed population are structurally similar and will lyse together, leading to mixed DNA profiles.
PATTERNS OF DNA TRANSFER ONTO COMMON HOUSEHOLD ITEMS BY COHABITANTS
Angelica Bachman, Leo Kan, Dr. Ruth Ballard CSU-Sacramento
Improvements in the sensitivity of DNA testing have made the analysis of touch DNA routine. However, such evidence is often difficult to interpret because the DNA is typically present a low levels, DNA mixtures are common, and the manner in which the DNA got onto the item is impossible to track. For example, if zip ties are recovered from the wrists of a victim and swabbed for DNA, the result will likely be a low level mixture, with alleles from the victim and other, unknown sources. Furthermore, even if the foreign DNA can be assigned to a particular suspect, this finding does not necessarily mean that he perpetrated the crime. The last person to touch an item may not shed any DNA onto it, and a person who touched the item in the past, before the crime was committed, could be wrongly implicated.
RECOVERY OF BLOOD AND HUMAN DNA FROM A WASHING MACHINE
McNeese, M., Marty, S., and Ballard, R. CSU-Sacramento
Using the theory behind Locard's exchange principle, we wanted to see if it was possible to detect blood, and obtain DNA, from the inside of a washing machine after a bloody item had been laundered in it. We were motivated by a 2012 Washington State homicide case, where the suspect washed his shirt after returning home from the residence of his girlfriend, who was later found murdered. Crime scene investigators collected the shirt, which appeared to be sprayed with high velocity blood spatter, but the Washington State Patrol crime lab was unable to detect the victim's DNA on it. Assuming her blood was originally there, and was removed during laundering, we wondered if the CSI unit could have detected something if they'd swabbed the inside of the machine.
FENTANYL DERIVATIVE DETECTION USING IMMUNALYSIS ELISA FENTANYL KIT
Lizett Ramirez, Jessica Gadway, Oscar Pleitez, Courtney Castellino, Caitlin Miller, Jay R. Vargas CSU-LA
Fentanyl and fentanyl derivatives are attributed to the recent rise in opioid related overdose deaths in the United States. These synthetic opioids are often abused unknowingly in street heroin preparations and in counterfeit preparations of oxycodone and oxycontin. These preparations are deadly due to the high potency of the fentanyl compounds. Therefore, the ability to screen and identify these compounds is paramount in post mortem toxicology. The objective of this study was to assess the potential cross- reactivity of sufentanil, alfentanil, butyryl fentanyl, acetyl fentanyl and carfentanil using the Immunalysis fentanyl ELISA kit. This study also evaluated the ability of the current fentanyl gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method in use at the LACDME-C to detect and analyze these five fentanyl derivatives.
Biological matrices used for analysis were drug free porcine blood and drug free synthetic urine. The blood and urine were spiked with a range of 0.625 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL of fentanyl and each derivative and used as samples with the Immunalysis Fentanyl ELISA kit. Acetyl fentanyl and Butyryl fentanyl were found to cross-react with the fentanyl immunoassay. The data suggests that Immunalysis Fentanyl ELISA kit can be used to screen blood and urine for fentanyl, acetyl fentanyl, and butyryl fentanyl. Results from GC-MS analysis will also be presented and discussed.
TIME DEPENDENT ANALYSIS OF BLEACH DEGRADATION RESIDUES ON TEXTILE FABRICS BY PRESUMPTIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY
Mark LaVigne, Joseph J. Cavaleri, Ph.D., Katherine Roberts, Ph.D.
The use of household bleach in assaults against individuals and in crime scene cleanup or concealment often results in clothing items that are affected by bleach, usually with faded fabric. However, the authors of the present study are unaware of a published standardized procedure to presumptively test and quantify bleach residues on textile fabrics. Under ambient conditions, hypochlorite ions undergo self-degradation to produce chloride and chlorate ions. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that evidentiary items stained with bleach will experience increased degradation with increased heat or storage time. As evidence backlogs exist in many forensic laboratories, the length of time between evidence submission and actual testing of clothing can determine the quality of information gained from bleach stained fabric analysis.
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SWABBING AND SOAKING METHODS USED TO RECOVER DNA FROM LIVE CARTRIDGES AND DISCHARGED CARTRIDGE CASES
Yessica Frias, Shannan D. Kelly, Alexandra Chavez, Donald J. Johnson CSU-LA,& LAPD
Live and fired ammunition recovered from crime scenes can be analyzed for touch DNA to identify the loader of the firearm. The traditional method of analysis consists of swabbing the outer surfaces of the cartridges and cartridge cases with a moistened cotton swab. This method produces low success rates of obtaining DNA typing results. The San Diego Police Department has validated a soaking method protocol that seeks to improve the recovery of touch DNA from ammunition. The method consists of submerging the cartridge in lysis buffer during the extraction procedure. The purpose of this study is to compare the traditional swabbing method with the newly-validated soaking method to determine which method produces greater DNA yields and typing results. The study consisted of analyzing 200 live cartridges and 200 discharged cartridge cases that were loaded into a firearm by two individuals. Half of the samples were handled by the loaders for two days prior to loading while the remaining samples were loaded directly from the ammunition box. Cartridges containing copper were compared to nickel-coated cartridges to determine whether copper has an effect on DNA yields. The DNA samples were quantitated using the PowerQuant® kit and typed using the PowerPlex® Fusion 6C kit. Reportedly, the PowerPlex® Fusion 6C kit reliably produces complete STR profiles from as little as 100 pg of human DNA.
PERFORMANCE OF THE ILLUMINA FORENSEQ™ SIGNATURE DNA PREP KIT AND MISEQ FGX VERSUS THE PROMEGA POWERPLEX FUSION 5C KIT AND ABI 310 GA FOR THE DNA ANALYSIS OF HUMAN REMAINS
Rachel Harris, Melissa Kotkin, Meghan Didier, W. Reef Hardy Ph.D., Diane Flaucher, Al Bodota, Katherine Roberts Ph.D. California State University, Los Angeles
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the success of the Illumina's ForenSeq NGS kit versus Promega's PowerPlex® Fusion 5C system, a traditional PCR-CE kit, for analyzing bone, nail, muscle, buccal, and post-mortem blood specimens -- the sample types most commonly encountered in HID cases. Analyzed samples consisted of 15 buccal swabs, 22 post-mortem blood samples, nine bone samples, six nail samples, seven muscle samples, and eight victim exemplars (four razors and four toothbrushes) collected to mimic possible ante-mortem reference samples. The DNA extracted from each sample was quantified with the Promega Plexor® HY assay to determine which sample type(s) yielded the most genetic material. Each sample was analyzed using either the PowerPlex Fusion system followed by CE on an ABI Prism® 310 Genetic Analyzer or the ForenSeq kit followed by sequencing on the MiSeq FGx™ platform according to established protocols.
EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON THE KINEMATICS OF HANDWRITING
Helen Manasyan, Miriam Angel, Dr. Jay R. Vargas CSU-LA
The purpose of this study was to investigate how kinematic features of handwriting change at various levels of intoxication within a social drinking paradigm. Determining the variation in handwriting from alcohol consumption can improve the Forensic Document Examiner's understanding of how consumption of alcohol affects handwriting, to reduce the likelihood that errors would be made attributing differences to another writer. Participants in the drinking study were given a phrase to copy on handwriting forms placed on top of a tablet running MovAlyzeR® software, which recorded dynamic data as the person was writing. The forms were completed before consumption of alcohol and at assigned intervals of controlled drinking. The kinematic features focused on for this experiment include road length, slant, jerk (a measure of smoothness), and duration change. Multiple static handwriting features will also be assessed. Preliminary results from an initial 10 participants will be presented and discussed.