73rd SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Spring 1989)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
MAY 18-20, 1989
Sacramento, California

THE COYOTE FLAT MURDERS 1925
Richard Walton, MA(1), Paul Dougherty, J.D.(2);

(1) Investigator - Humboldt Co. D.A., 825 5th St., Eureka, CA 95501; (2) San Mateo, CA

Review of this forensically historic case began as a result of pre-death statements by a participant in what was termed one of the nation's ten most famous unsolved murder cases of the 1920's. The purpose of research was to corroborate statements that a man who served over a quarter century in prison was innocent. Intensive research found original state and federal reports, original investigator's notebooks, and the discovery and first time ever review of the files of prominent scientist E.O. Heinrich. This case involved early firearms identification and blood splatter analysis. A PC was used to time line events in which the district attorney and his detective were sentenced to federal prison for violating the National Prohibition Act.


THE POLYGRAPH - CALIFORNIA'S GIFT TO THE WORLD
Jon Arnold, Chicago, Illinois

An overview of the critical role of the polygraph in American Criminalistics as seen through the life of Leonardo Keeler, American psychologist, criminologist, inventor, and major developer of the polygraph, or "Lie Detector" as we know it today. A protégé of California criminologist August Vollmer, and engrossed student of the subject of deception and its physiological manifestations, Keeler in 1926 marketed the first mass-production portable polygraph instrument. Housed in a mahogany box, it featured a motorized chart drive, inked styluses, all-mechanical functioning, and a question marker stylus. The instrument was a dramatic improvement over his initial prototype, the "Emotograph", and a major advance over the first apparatus developed in 1921 by another mentor, John Larson. The device included two blood pressure cuffs, and a chest tube for measuring respiration. In 1929 Keeler became an associate of the Institute for Juvenile Research in Chicago, and then an associate of the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory of Chicago directed by Lt. Col. Calvin Goddard. In 1935 he became de facto director of the laboratory after its absorption by Northwestern University, and in such position became a major force in American Criminalistics. His wife, Katherine Applegate Keeler was also a criminalist and document examiner of considerable achievement.


CALVIN GODDARD AND THE ST. VALENTINE'S DAY MASSACRE
John D. DeHaan, California Criminalists Institute, Bureau of Forensic Services, California Department of Justice, 4949 Broadway, Sacramento, CA 95820

The machine gun deaths of seven men in a Chicago garage on St. Valentine's Day, 1929, was a landmark in criminal justice that has gone largely unrecognized. This was not just a skirmish for liquor rights - it was a turning point. It was the "final outrage" that citizens of Chicago could no longer tolerate. The gangsters were no longer heroes. The Cook County Coroner convened a special "Blue Ribbon Jury", the first of its kind. This eminent group called for the assistance of specialists like Calvin Goddard whose participation gained international recognition for firearms identification. This case resulted in the establishment of one of the first crime labs in the U.S. and eventually led to the founding of a forensic journal and a major university program. Although the weapons were later found, no one was ever brought to trial. Strong arguments have been offered that law enforcement officers were responsible. Other obvious suspects cannot be eliminated. This report reexamines the Massacre from the standpoint of the evidence available now and offers a solution to the mystery. It also discusses its impact on the criminal justice system and forensic sciences.


EARLY FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION: CALVIN GODDARD AND CAPT. EDWARD C. CROSSMAN
Paul M. Dougherty, P.O. Box 112, Ojai, CA 93023

Considerable amount of early material has been uncovered relating to early working California along with the original equipment used by Capt. Crossman.

The Goddard ammunition collection has also been found with some rather interesting material in the collection. Taken together, along with various case documentation, it gives a picture of the quality of work being done by these two men, in the period from 1925 to 1939.


DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE IN THE MIDWEST
Ralph F. Turner, M.S., Prof. Emeritus, 4331 Hulett Road Okemos, Mich. 48864

A slide presentation highlighting the early contributions of midwestern forensic scientists.


CALIFORNIA AND THE EAST
Al Biasotti, Assistant Bureau Chief, Bureau of Forensic Services, California Department of Justice, 4949 Broadway, Sacramento, CA 95820

Some reflections of a U.C. Berkeley, 1950, criminalistics program grad's sojourns into the "traditional" crime labs of the East; the continuing debate on the "generalist" verses the "specialist", and the pioneer forensic scientists that I was privileged to work for and with.


THE LINDBERGH CASE REVISITED: A REVIEW OF THE CRIMINALISTICS EVIDENCE
Lucien C. Haag, 4034 West Luke Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85019

The Lindbergh kidnapping case, now over half a century old has been the subject of numerous books, several films and even a recent lawsuit. Doubts about the guilt of Bruno Richard Hauptmann raised in the 1930's persist today. Criticisms of the purported associations between the homemade ladder left at the scene with Hauptmann's tools and with wood in his residence are still being voiced. The retention of the physical evidence in this case by the order made a contemporary evaluation of these questions possible. In January of 1983 the author traveled to New Jersey, viewed the original crime scene, studied the trial exhibits and reexamined the major items of physical evidence exclusive of the kidnap and ransom notes. This paper will illustrate the remarkable work of Arthur Koehler, the State's wood expert and perhaps America's first true criminalist.


THE KIRK YEARS
John I. Thornton, Forensic Science Group, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

Dr. Paul Leland Kirk will almost certainly be remembered as one of the most notable criminalists of the 20th century. Initially trained as a biochemist, he then trained himself to be an innovative microchemist, and later still applied his formidable intellectual gifts to the discipline we now call "criminalistics". He was at the University of California at Berkeley from 1929 until his death in 1970. During WWII he was involved with the Manhattan Project, and was responsible for the first microchemical separation of Plutonium. After the war, his interests turned to physical evidence. His contributions to the profession are legion, but three stand out:

  1. He was a well-established scientist prior to his involvement with forensic problems; consequently, criminalistics developed into a serious scientific enterprise rather than a form of "high-grade detective work";
  2. As an established researcher, he saw that many physical evidence cases were in fact research problems, to be addressed by the application of the scientific method; and
  3. His personal involvement in several particularly notable cases, the Burton Abbot case and the Sam Sheppard case topping the list, served to create a public awareness of the value of physical evidence.

THE HISTORY OF NARCOTIC LABS IN CALIFORNIA
Cecil Hider, California Criminalistics Institute, Bureau of Forensic Services, California Department of Justice, 4949 Broadway, Sacramento, CA 95820

Criminalistics laboratories in California performed very few drug analysis until the mid-Sixties. The majority of analysis on seized or purchased contraband was performed by chemists in the Federal Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and the Food and Drug labs together with the State Bureau of Narcotic Enforcement labs. The Alcohol and Tobacco labs later became the Bureau of Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs. The Food and Drug labs were later combined with the BNDD labs to form DEA labs. The Food and Drug labs were located in San Francisco and Los Angeles. They examined barbiturates, amphetamines and later LSD. The BNDD laboratories examined marijuana, cocaine and heroin. The state laboratories examined all seized or purchased drugs submitted by county, city and state agencies. In 1972, the state BNE labs were phased out and the remaining chemists were assigned to the state-wide lab system.


DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF TWO FEDERAL LABORATORY SYSTEMS TO ENFORCE LAWS OF THEIR RESPECTIVE AGENCIES AND HAVING FORENSIC CAPABILITIES
Herman J. Meuron, 3760 Diamond Head Circle, Honolulu, Hawaii 96815

The U.S.Food and Drug Administration has laboratories in Washington D.C. and field labs in various cities across the USA, doing regulatory analyses, research and forensic activities. The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax Laboratories (renamed Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Labs) do similar work of a regulatory and enforcement nature related to the laws their Agency enforces. The old Narcotics Bureau once had a one-chemist lab which will be described. Some interesting cases will be mentioned as well as personalities of these agencies and political interferences involving lawmakers and diplomats. Briefly mentioned also will be several other federal bureaus and their labs. The time frame is approx. 1900 to 1970. Accounts based on personal experiences as a chemist with these agencies as well as interviews from 1900-1939, with these early chemists.


THE ZODIAC: AN UNSOLVED SERIAL MURDERER
Robert E. Prouty, Questioned Document Section, Office of the Attorney General, California Department of Justice, 4949 Broadway, Sacramento, CA 95820

In the late 1960's at least five homicides occurred in an area bounded by San Francisco, Vallejo and Lake Berryessa in Napa County. All in Northern California. One similar thread ties all five together. A person identifying himself as the ZODIAC wrote letters to numerous newspapers and made telephone calls to police agencies bragging about his actions. The last identified letter from ZODIAC was in January 1974. There have been two books written about ZODIAC along with several newspaper and magazine articles. They have all published photographs of some of the letters sent by the suspect. This has spurred copycats to also send letters claiming to be the ZODIAC. The ZODIAC'S handprinting is identifiable and is probably the best evidence available against him.


THE CHOWCHILLA MASS KIDNAPPING CASE OF JULY, 1976
Robert M. Cooper, Crime Laboratory Director, Alameda County Sheriff's Department, 15001 Foothill Blvd., San Leandro, CA 94578

This is a relatively recent but semi-historical case. The case is briefly reviewed, being illustrated with appropriate slides of part of the five county crime scene and selected items of evidence. The case is presented as a typical example of a newsworthy case which can either emphasize the need for a local crime laboratory and act as an impetus to the establishment of a new laboratory or create an atmosphere of appreciation and growth for an already existing laboratory. The profession of Criminalistics is still young. Many more crime laboratories will undoubtedly be established in the future. This example, and a consideration of other laboratories which have either been established or burgeoned from a similar incentive, may make potential future Crime Laboratory Directors aware of the importance of such opportunities.


REPORT ON THE SAN QUENTIN SIX CASE
Louis A, Maucieri, California Criminalistics Institute, Bureau of Forensic Services, California Department of Justice, 4949 Broadway, Sacramento, CA 95820

In the late 1960's various prison gangs were competing for a power base within and beyond the institutions. In 1970-71 one leader emerged to be the focus of a violent attempted escape from San Quentin. After a visit with his attorney, the inmate returned to the Adjustment Center and produced a 9mm pistol he had concealed under a wig. In the violent melee that followed, a total of five were killed that August afternoon. Controversy concerning the bullet, fatal to the inmate leader, was solved by Criminalistics. Various evidence items including concealed ammunition, ZIP guns, a toothbrush, razor, an escape map, acid, and an unidentifiable print on the 9mm will be described. The trial occurred in 1975. Three of the six were convicted. The fugitive attorney came forward in 1983 and was acquitted in a 1986 trial.


THE USE OF THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR TYPING GC VARIANTS
Rebecca Reynolds & George Sensabaugh; Forensic Science Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

The Gc 1 and Gc 2 proteins appear to differ by 4 amino acids (residues 152, 311,416, 420), but the difference between the 1F and 1S subtypes is unknown. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to amplify the regions of DNA that code for the 4 variable amino acids in the Gc sequence. DNA sequencing of these regions from individuals representing the 6 possible Gc genotypes should indicate the distribution of the amino acids among the genotypes. We have made primers to amplify the regions containing the codons for amino acids 311, 416 and 420, and we have obtained specific Gc sequences. The sequence differences in codons 416 and 420 result in differences in restriction enzymes (RE) sites between type 1 and type 2 DNA. Type 1S and type 2 homozygous individuals are easily distinguished by Re digestion of PCR amplified DNA.


IMMUNE STAINING OF THE PROSTATE AND SEMINAL VESICLES WITH ABO/LEWIS ANTIBODIES
Malcolm McGinnis(1), George Sensabaugh(1), Greg Aponte(2), John McNeal(3)

(1) School of Public Health, Forensic Science Group, U.C. Berkeley 94720; (2) Department of Nutrition, U.C. Berkeley; (3) Stanford Medical Center, Department of Urology, Stanford CA

Monoclonal antibodies specific for the ABO and Lewis blood group antigens were used in a peroxidase-anti-peroxidase procedure to stain sections of the prostate gland and seminal vesicle. This approach made it possible to determine which tissues along the male reproductive tract are responsible for the production of the blood group-active glycoproteins found in semen. The results of this study suggest that the central zone of the prostate (but not the peripheral zone), the seminal vesicles, and the ejaculatory duct are the sites of origin for the secreted glycoproteins.


AN ANALYSIS OF THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF DNA FROM HAIR
Rhonda Kay Roby, S. Walsh, C. Von Beroldingen, G.Sensabaugh; Forensic Science Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

DNA was extracted from hair shafts and from hair roots with and without sheath material. Quantitation was measured by ethidium bromide staining of agarose gels and by fluorometric analysis. The quality of DNA in these samples has been evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Plucked hairs retaining sheath material contain mostly high molecular weight DNA. Single hairs without sheath, whether plucked or shed, were found to contain too little DNA to allow quality assessment. DNA isolated from pooled hair shafts contain some high molecular weight DNA and substantial quantities of low molecular weight nucleic acid. Southern blot analysis of this DNA has revealed the presence of both mitochondrial DNA and genomic DNA sequences.


EFFECTS OF UV DAMAGE ON DNA AMPLIFICATION BY THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
M. Buoncristiani, C.Von Beroldingen, G. Sensabaugh; Forensic Science Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

We have investigated the effects of UV damage, specifically pyrimidine dimer formation, on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For this purpose, a 110 bp sequence of the a-globin gene and the 242 bp typing sequence from the DQ' gene were used. The effects of both short (254nm) and long wave (365nm) irradiation of both "naked" DNA and DNA in whole cells (blood and semen) were studied. Exposures tested ranged from 0 to 30,000 J/M}. Shortwave exposure of naked DNA in solution with doses exceeding 200J/M} resulted in a reduction of PCR product. There is little loss of PCR product from DNA recovered from heavily irradiated liquid whole blood, blood stains, or liquid semen. Irradiation of semen stains resulted in reduced DNA recovery and a corresponding reduction of PCR product.


A NON-ORGANIC PROCEDURE FOR THE EXTRACTION OF DNA FROM EVIDENTIARY SAMPLES
A. Eisenberg, L Belluscio, A. Turck, S. Nawoschik, S. Maguire, B. Schall, R. McKee, J. Grimberg; Lifecodes Corp., Saw Mill River Road, Valhalla, NY 10595

The application of DNA Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP's) to the analysis of evidentiary samples has provided forensic scientists with the unprecedented ability to distinguish and identify the source of biological samples. The RFLP analysis is dependent upon the isolation and purification of genomic DNA which can then be digested with restriction endonucleases. Most procedures for isolation of genomic DNA are time consuming and cumbersome, involving the use of one or several of the following purification steps; extraction with organic reagents such as phenol, ultracentrifugation, extensive dialysis, ethanol precipitation and subsequent resuspension. We have developed a very simple procedure for the extraction of DNA which does not require any separate purification steps. Using this procedure, DNA can be isolated from blood in a single 1.5 ml microcentrifuge tube in under 4 hours which is then digestible with all restriction enzymes tested. In addition, we have used this method to isolate DNA from frozen blood; bloodstains; semen stains; and mixed stains containing both blood and semen. We have compared the autoradiographic pattern obtained with several VNTR probes to those of DNA isolated by our standard organic extraction procedure and have shown them to be indistinguishable.


AMPLIFICATION OF Y-CHROMOSOME SPECIFIC SEQUENCES IN BIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
C.H. Von Beroldingen(1), G.F. Sensabaugh(1), LA. Von Beroldingen(2), R. Higuchi(3), H.A. Erlich(3)

(1) Forensic Science Group, University of California, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA 94720; (2) California Department of Justice, Regional Laboratory, Santa Rosa, CA 95409; (3) Department of Human Genetics, Cetus Corporation, 1400 Fifty-Third Street, Emeryville, CA 94608

Determination of the sex of the donor of a biological evidence sample may be valuable in any investigation in which the identity of the donor is in question. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), which amplifies specific target sequences many million-fold, provides a simple and rapid method to detect the presence of human male DNA even in samples in which the DNA may be degraded or present in minute amounts. We have amplified a 149 bp segment of a 3.4 kb repeat sequence which is specific to the Y chromosome and is present in as many as several thousand copies in male DNA. The presence of the 149 bp Y-specific PCR product is readily detectable by gel electrophoresis. No such product is observed when female DNA is amplified with Y-specific primers. We have applied this method of sex determination to the analysis of a variety of samples, including bloodstains, vaginal swabs, saliva on various substrates, and single hairs. Additionally, co-amplification of the HLA-DQ' alpha and the Y-specific sequences has been accomplished. The presence of DQ' PCR product in the absence of Y-specific PCR product confirms the lack of DNA from the Y chromosome in the case of a sample of female origin. The DQ' genotype of a sample may be determined as well by dot- blot assay of the PCR product.


THE DISTRIBUTION OF ABO, LEWIS, ESD, PGM SUBTYPE, ADA, AK, AND ACP IN A SELECTED CALIFORNIA POPULATION
Maria Samples; California Department of Justice, Salinas Criminalistics Laboratory, 745 Airport Blvd., Salinas, CA 93901

The paper presents the results of grouping tests done on blood samples submitted to the Salinas Criminalistics Laboratory over the last 4 years. The subjects are from the Monterey County, Santa Cruz County, and San Benito County areas; they were generally victims or suspects in cases submitted for analysis. The majority of the samples were typed in all of the following blood group systems: ABO, Lewis, ESD, PGM subtype, ADA, AK, and ACP. The frequency data are presented both as a general population and broken down into Black, Caucasian, and Hispanic populations.


EFFECTS OF ENZYMATIC DEGRADATION OF DNA ON RFLP ANALYSIS
Kenneth C. Konzak, R. Remolds, C. Von Beroldingen, M.Buoncristiani, and G.F. Sensabaugh; Forensic Science Research Group and California Criminalistics Institute, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

DNA damage and degradation in forensic materials can occur by three major mechanisms:

  1. strand breakage,
  2. damage to the bases, or
  3. by cross-linking of bases to each other or to protein.

To address the effects of DNA damage - if any - on RFLP typing systems, a systematic study of DNA damage and degradation was undertaken. "Naked" genomic DNA was used to establish calibrated conditions for a range of damage by strand breakage by enzymatic cleavage on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) detected by several common single locus probes.


OF FORESTS AND TREES - BLOODSTAIN DYNAMICS
Anita K.Y. Wonder, P.O. Box 13891, Sacramento, CA 95853

Paul Leland Kirk gave new life and meaning to a neglected form of forensic evidence when he described bloodstain dynamics. From his observations and experiments came the knowledge that patterns were predictable and reproducible for specific events and actions. In the years which followed Dr. Kirk's work, changes led toward two dimensional pattern concepts rather than the original appreciation of dynamic actions which precede stain ing. The field is now called "Bloodspatter" evidence, ignoring nonspattering actions which also leave valuable investigative in formation at crime scenes. This paper will present an overview of the dynamic actions which lead to bloodstains. The content, hopefully, will support a plea from the author for Criminalists to return to Dr. Kirk's original title of "Bloodstain Dynamics."


CRIME SCENE "MAPPING" AND INITIAL BULLET TRAJECTORY INFORMATION UTILIZING A THEODOLITE
Frank H. Cassidy; Calif. Dept. of Justice, Santa Barbara Regional Lab, 820 Botello RD., Goleta, CA 93117

A theodolite is an instrument used especially by civil engineers to obtain X, Y, and Z coordinates. This presentation gives general properties of advanced instruments and why they should be considered for outdoor crime scenes, especially those that have extensive evidence in widely scattered areas.


RICOCHET OF BULLETS FROM AUTOMOBILE WINDSHIELDS
Peter D. Barnett, Jennifer Super-Mihalovich; Forensic Science Associates, 3053 Research Drive, Richmond, CA 94806

In the reconstruction of shooting incidents it is frequently necessary to determine the angle of incidence of a bullet which has ricocheted off a surface. Previous studies have determined the angles of ricochet for surfaces such as steel, plaster and water. We performed a series of tests designed to determine the minimum angle of incidence necessary to cause bullets to ricochet from automobile windshields. Using .38 spl + P ammunition, angles of incidence of 8 degrees or less measured from the glass surface to the path of the bullet, resulted in a ricochet. The trajectory of the deflected bullets was between 15 degrees and 35 degrees from the original path of the bullet.


AMERICAN LEAD-, ANTIMONY-, AND BARIUM-FREE CENTERFIRE AMMUNITION
Lucien C. Haag; Forensic Science Services, 4034 West Luke Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85019

In the last several years Omark Industries has developed centerfire pistol ammunition in popular calibers which lacks any of the customary inorganic elements utilized in GSR testing and the characterization of bullet holes through the lead-containing bullet wipe. The composition of these primers will be described and SEM characteristics of the zinc-and manganese-containing particles will be illustrated.


ANALYSIS OF PHRASE STRUCTURE AS A BASIS FOR ESTABLISHING SAMENESS OR DIFFERENCE OF AUTHORSHIP
Gerald McMenamin; Department of Linguistics, California State University at Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740

Forensic Stylistics is a branch of the science of Linguistics concerned with the analysis of writing style for the purpose of author identification. Authorship may be established to a relative degree of certainty based on the underlying linguistic patterns which help to distinguish one writer from another. These patterns can be described and measured by linguistic analysis. Depending on the circumstances of the case and the data available for analysis, strong authorship attribution is possible. In this case, two uncomplimentary letters of recommendation were purported to have been written by two different former supervisors of a company's former employee. An analysis of the number, type and sequence of phrases in the letters indicated that the letters were written by the same author or written by two authors in close collusion.


MICROORGANISMS IN SEIZED COCAINE SAMPLES
John N. Houde, B.S.(1), Nancy H. Bishop, PhD.(2)

(1) Ventura Co. Sheriff's Crime Lab, 800 S. Victoria Avenue, Ventura, CA 93009; (2) California State University - Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330

Infection with environmental microbes usually considered as non-pathogens is reported with increasing frequency in cocaine abusers. We sought to survey the microbial flora in cocaine samples as potential sources of infectious agents. Forty of 118 seized packages of cocaine hydrochloride (CH), approximately one kg each, identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were sampled aseptically; cultures were prepared in spread or pour plates from concentrated solutions or on membranes after filtration of dilute solutions. Antimicrobial activity against selected known microbes was measured. CH inhibited gram positive and negative bacteria and a yeast; inhibition varied with CH concentration. Relatively few organisms were recovered from CH, indicating few microbes in the samples, killing of microbes by CH solution, or both. Most isolates were species of Bacillus or Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results implicate cocaine as a source for infective agents, and suggest that the concentration of aqueous cocaine hydrochloride influences microbial survival and selects for sporeformers.


THE MICROSCOPICAL IDENTIFICATION OF COCAINE BASE AND METHAMPHETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE
James G. Bailey; Los Angeles Sheriff Dept., Criminalistics Laboratory, 2020 W. Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90057

The identification of cocaine hydrochloride by optical crystallography and dispersion staining has been well established. These techniques will be extended to include cocaine base, methamphetamine hydrochloride and associated compounds. Schemes of analysis for both drugs will be presented.


NO HONOR AMONG JOCKS - COUNTERFEIT ANABOLIC STEROIDS
John P. Bowden; California Criminalistics Institute, California Department of Justice, P.O. BOX 90333, Sacramento, CA 95820

The abuse of anabolic steroids continues to increase, especially among high school, college, and professional athletes. The demand far exceeds the supply, even that available from unscrupulous practitioners. This has created a large black market for these compounds, partially through diversion of legitimate supplies, but principally by smuggling. An increasingly larger percentage of these illicit sales are found to be counterfeited, substituted, or completely void of active material. A compilation of recent case submissions which evidence this trend is presented.


GC/IR AND GC/MS ANALYSIS OF CLANDESTINE LABORATORY SAMPLES
Bryan Miller; HewlettPackard, 5725 West Las Positas Blvd., Pleasanton, CA 94566

Clandestine laboratory reaction mixtures present a particular challenge to the forensic chemist. The precursors and by-products that can be found in reaction pot residue may consist of many isomers that are difficult to distinguish by GC/MS. While the mass spectrometer produces powerful structural information based on molecular fragmentation, often including molecular weight data, MS can be weak in the area of isomer differentiation. Conversely, the infrared spectrometer is strong in this area. Examples of clandestine lab samples will be shown illustrating the complementary nature of GC/MS and GC/IR data, and the ability of GC/IR to distinguish between compounds that are very similar structurally.


LITHIUM-AMMONIA REDUCTION OF EPHEDRINE TO METHAMPHETA MINE. AN UNUSUAL CLANDESTINE SYNTHESIS
Diane C. McGrath and Roger A. Ely; Drug Enforcement Administration, Western Laboratory, 390 Main Street, Room 700, San Francisco, CA 94105

A suspected clandestine methamphetamine laboratory was seized in Vacaville, California. Ephedrine, a precursor to manufacture of methamphetamine, was discovered at the site. However, the chemicals normally expected to be found at an ephedrine conversion laboratory were not recovered. Other chemicals found at the scene included tetrahydrofuran, ammonium chloride, lithium metal and ammonia gas. Examinations of the suspect's notes indicated several different common synthetic routes to methamphetamine; and a route utilizing a lithium-ammonia-ammonium chloride reduction. This type of reduction for ephedrine has not been found in the literature. The authors reproduced the suspect's reaction scheme and found the lithium-ammonia-ammonium chloride reduction of ephedrine to be a viable synthesis to methamphetamine.


THE FORENSIC EXAMINATION OF PHENYL-2-PROPANONE SYNTHE SIZED FROM PHENYLACETIC ACID WITH ACETIC ANHYDRIDE OR LEAD ACETATE
Roger Ely, Andrew Allen, Pegy Stevenson,and Susan Nakamura; Drug Enforcement Administration Western Laboratory, 390 Main Street, Room 700, San Francisco, CA 94105

Phenyl-2-propanone (P-2-P), which is synthesized in clandestine laboratories from phenylacetic acid and acetic anhydride in the presence of sodium acetate or from the dry distillation of phenylacetic acid and lead (II) diacetate, is examined. These two routes are inspected using capillary gas chromatography (GC) with vapor phase Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection to identify many of these reaction byproducts. The synthetic mechanisms of the two reactions are presented along with the mechanisms giving rise to the by-products.


CCI LIBRARY SERVICES
Eric M. Mosier, M.LS.; California Criminalistics Institute Library, Bureau of Forensic Services, California Department of Justice, 4949 Broadway, Sacramento, CA 95820

The purpose of the California Criminalistics Institute (CCI) Library is to meet the informational needs of forensic scientists working in California's public sector crime labs. The library maintains a core collection of forensic books, journals, and videos which public sector forensic scientists may borrow. Since the library has access to thousands of library collections nationwide, library staff can obtain additional informational resources for patron use via interlibrary loan. Library staff also answer requests for specific reference information with the assistance of DIALOG databases. Forensic scientists can request information by phone or electronic bulletin board. The bulletin board also features CCI news, schedule of courses, and current awareness bibliographies. Information can be immediately sent to lab staff via FAX. The CCI Library is currently in the process of developing an online catalog of its holdings which will be available by personal computer dial access in 1990.


HOLMES MEETS HAL - CRIMINALISTICS ENTERS THE 21ST CENTURY
J.M. Rynearson, Bureau of Forensic Services, Redding Regional Laboratory, Redding, California

The rapid advances in power and sophistication of microcomputers and mainframes have made it possible to adapt them to a variety of information processing tasks within the crime lab and in the larger context of criminal intelligence. This workshop will address several current (and future) projects that could revolutionize our lab work: DADS (Drug Analytical Data System), LADS (Laboratory Analytical Data System), AI (Artifical Intelligence Expert Systems), ILES (Illicit Laboratory Expert Systems) and VCIC (Violent Crime Information Center).

DADS promises to share information on content and formulations of illicit drugs analyzed from all the state labs and provide law enforcement with information on distribution networks and illicit manufacturing sources.

The Illicit Lab Expert System will give clandestine lab teams information dealing with formulas, apparatus and chemicals encountered at illicit drug labs as well as monitoring their safety exposures.

Expert Systems have been developed for delivery on IBM PC's which capture the experience and expertise of an expert serologist. This system will be expanded to include DNA information and linkages to the California Criminalistics library of references.

The Violent Crime Information Center, a part of the Bureau of Organized Crime and Criminal Intelligence, includes forensic evidence details valuable in identifying related crimes. This system, combined with the Lab Analytical Data System, will coordinate the results of lab analysis to the scene, victim and general profile information of criminal cases.