65th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Spring 1985)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
May 17-19, 1985
Oakland, California

ACCIDENT, SUICIDE OR MURDER? AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE INVESTIGATION OF DEATHS BY FIREARMS
Haag, Lucien C., Forensic Science Services, Inc. 4034 W Luke Ave., Phoenix, AZ, 85109

This presentation illustrates the importance of a comprehensive approach to the evaluation of firearms deaths. Case examples will be used to demonstrate the importance of scene evaluation, the review of the medical examiner's findings and the police reports prior to analysis, trace evidence distribution, the complete examination of the responsible firearm with particular attention to its configuration when found, the nature of its firing and safety mechanisms, any damage to the gun as well as possible exterior and terminal ballistic questions.


AN INEXPENSIVE LASER FOR USE IN TRAJECTORY MEASUREMENTS AND AS A ILLUMINATION AND EXCITATION SOURCE
Dillon, Duayne J, Criminalistics Services Center, Martinez, CA

Previous authors have suggested the use of low energy laser sources for a number of applications in Criminalistics. The cost of commercially available portable sources generally exceeds $1000, although hobbyist kits are available for several hundred dollars. A supplier of surplus 2.3 mw helium neon laser tubes has been located. These tubes can be purchased together with plans and components for a suitable power source for $100.00. An adaptation of such a laser system to trajectory measurements is demonstrated and its usefulness as an energy source is discussed.


ANALYSIS OF NATURAL AND EARLY SYNTHETIC DYES ON WOOL SUBSTRATES USING REVERSE PHASE HPLC
Walker, Cynthia and Howard Needles, Division of Textiles and Clothing, University of California Davis, CA, 95616

The separation and identification of natural dyes from wool fibres using reverse phase HPLC was performed on a C-18 column. Two isocratic four-solvent systems were developed based on the Snyder solvent selectivity triangle concept: 1) 10% acetonitrile, 4% alcohol, and 2% THF in .01 M acetic acid; 2) 7% acetonitrile, 8% alcohol, and 5% THF in .01 M acetic acid. Samples were also eluted in 30% acetonitrile. Spot tests and TLC were performed on all samples to confirm HPLC results. The systems were found to also be useful in the identification of some synthetic dyes. A system of sample preparation which minimizes reaction of samples was discussed. The application of this HPLC separation technique to samples from 20th century Caucasian rugs and American samples unearthed from the foundation of Mission San Jose was examined.


1914 NEW YORK MURDER SOLVED WITH AMERICA'S FIRST MODERN BULLET-GUN IDENTI-FICATION: COMMISSIONER DILLON IS PLEASED
Dillon, Duayne J., Criminalistics Services Center P.O. Box 488 Martinez, CA 94553

The investigation of the murder of police informant in New York City in 1914 was brought to a successful conclusion in part, by a bullet-gun identification. The technique employed in this case was that introduced by Balthazard in the same year. The scientist responsible for this firearms identification, Guy Garrick, also employed a variety of the latest techno-logical advances to criminal investigation. Unfortunately Garrick, Commissioner Dillon and the firearms identification were the fictional products of the writer Arthur B. Reeves. Unique as this story is, perhaps more intriguing is the question of what source Reeves employed for his information about early work by European forensic scientists.


THE REPORTING OF DATA GENERATED IN A COMPLEX FIBER CASE
Blake, Marty, Oakland police Department, 455 7th St., Oakland, CA, 94607

A recent case involving many fiber comparisons is discussed. The body of a young female was found in a parking lot wrapped in a sheet. Many different fibers were found on the body and in the sheet. A suspect was developed and his house was searched. In the basement laundry area a crumpled sheet was located which contained many extraneous fibers. The fibers associated with the victim were compared to the fibers removed from the sheet of the suspect using light microscopy, polarized light microscopy and microspectrophotometry. A tabular method of presenting all significant fiber types is discussed, highlighting fiber "matches". The fiber evidence supported the conclusion that there was strong evidence of an association between the victim and the suspect's residence.


RECOGNITION AND EVIDENTIAL VALUE OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE FROM EXPLOSIVE INCI-DENTS
Guarino, Kevin S., U.S. Treasury Department, B.A.T.F., Forensic Laboratory, S.F.,CA, 94130

This paper reports on the types of physical evidence which may be encountered at a bombing scene. The primary focus will be on recognition of physical evidence both before and after an explosion. Further, the forensic analysis of such evidence, and its evidential value, will be discussed.

The Application of Physical Developer for Detection of Latent Fingerprints and Shoe Impressions Morton, Susan, United States Postal Service Crime Laboratory, San Bruno, CA and Marty Blake, Oakland P.D.

The use of a modified silver nitrate reagent for the detection of fingerprints and shoe impressions (from rubber soles) is discussed. This reagent was developed in England for the visualization of latent fingerprints on paper which has been wetted. Use of the reagent has shown that very strong reactions are given by rubber deposits on paper (e.g. rubber tong marks, glove impression and latent rubber-sole impressions on paper). Possible mechanisms for the reaction to rubber will be discussed and precautions regarding the use of the reagent will be outlined.


A PROFILE OF THE MEDICAL CASE HISTORY OF SEXUAL ASSAULT VICTIMS IN OAKLAND
Bashinski, Jan, Oakland Police Department, Edward T. Blake, and Charles E. Cook Jr., Forensic Science Associates

A profile of sexual assault cases in Oakland has been developed based on data from the medical examination report forms and from laboratory analysis in 569 cases occurring between 1979 and 1983. The victims in these cases ranged in age from 1-89 years but 21% were 15 or younger and almost 65% of them were below the age of 26. Black victims were represented (62%) in greater proportion than their numbers in the general population of the City (46.3% in 1980). In 48% of the cases, coitus was the only sexual act reported; oral copulation was involved in 28% almost half the cases involved some physical injury to the victim, but in most cases these were relatively minor. The mean time interval between the assault and the medical examination was 7.2 hours and two thirds of the victims were examined within 6 hours of the assault. Of the washing activities reported only douching appeared to have a substantial effect on the detectability of semen components. Almost one third of the victims who were asked reported having had consensual intercourse within the 72 hours preceding the assault and more of the samples from these victims contained detectable semen than did samples from victims who reported none. This finding underscores the importance of an accurate history to the evaluation of the analytical findings on vaginal swab samples.


A SURVEY ON THE PRESENCE OF SEMEN AT NON-HOMICIDE DEATHS Graves, Wary H., Paul J. Kingsley & Sandra Wiersema, Orange County Sheriff-Coroner Dept., Forensic Sci. Serv., 550 N. Flower St., Santa Ana, CA, 92703

Evidence was collected at autopsies from 51 non-homicide male deaths in Orange County to determine if semen was present. Pen He swabs and slides Mere made. Laboratory analysis Mas by p-30 Crossover electrophoresis and/or rocket electrophoresis on a swab extract, and microscopic examination of stained slides approximately 60% of the samples are positive for semen. The semen positive causes of death are listed as two hanging suicides, two gunshot suicides, three drug overdoses, two blunt force trauma from accidents and twenty-one "naturais" (17 heart disease related and 4 other). The other results indicate that the significance of semen present on a male homicide victim should d be viewed cautiously.


THE DETECTION OF SPERMATOZOA ON VAGINAL SWABS FROM VICTIMS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT THE ER VERSUS THE CRIME LAB
Bashinski, Jan S. Oakland Police Department, Edward T. Blake & Charles E. Cook, Jr., Forensic Science Associates

Medical history information and laboratory analytical data from 569 sexual assault case* occurring in Oakland between 1979 and 1983 have been evaluated. No evidence of ejaculation was found in approximately 25% of the cases where coitus was reported. This finding is consistent with the incidence of ejaculatory failure in rapists reported in other studies. In 83% of the cases where the victim reported coitus, the victim believed the assailant had ejaculated. However in 13% of the cases where the victim believed the assailant had ejaculated sperm were not found on the vagina swab. Conversely, in 30% of the cases where the victim reported coitus, no consensual intercourse in the previous 72 hours and no ejaculation by the assailant, spermatozoa were detected on the vagina) swabs we observed spermatozoa (at least a few sperm heads) in two thirds of the cases where the physician stated that no sperm were present; in 26% of the cases where the ER physician saw no sperm, we scored the slides +2 or higher. More disturbing however, was the incidence of "positive error" at the ER. In 113 of the cases in this study, the ER physician reported observing spermatozoa; in our examination of the slides from these eases, we found 11 (8.3%) which were negative or which had a few sperm heads only. Furthermore, in 6 of the 46 cases (13%) where the physician reported observing motile sperm, we found either no sperm, or only a few sperm heads with no elevated acid phosphatase.


PGM SURVIVAL IN ACTIVELY AND PASSIVELY DRIED VAGINAL SWABS
Blake, Edward T. Charles E. Cook, Jr., Forensic Science Associates, 1400 53rd Street Emeryville, CA 94608 and Jan Bashinski, Oakland Police Department

We have studied the survival of PGM activity in 416 vaginal swabs collected from rape victims where one set of swabs was actively dried at the ER and then frozen; and another set was passively dried and then frozen prior to analysis. The results of these studies demonstrated approximately a two fold increase in typable PGM for the actively dried set (79%) compared to the passively dried set (40%). There was approximately and a 350% increase in the proportion samples revealing foreign PGM activity for the actively dried set (25.3%) compared to the passively dried set (7.3%). These results support the hypothesis that considerable information is lost from sexual assault specimens within the first 24 hours after collection because of inadequate sample drying.


SEMEN AND SALIVA REVISITED: REVERSAL OF PGM DEGRADATION IN MIXTURES BY REDUCING AGENT
Blake, Edward T., Forensic Science Associates, 1400 53rd St. Emeryville, CA, 94608

In previous work we described a potential problem in the typing of PGM in mixtures of semen and saliva (J. For. Sci., 2S, (1980), 470-478). The nature of the problem was a preferential loss of the PGM "a" isozyme relative to the PGM "b" or "c" isozymes. This pattern of deterioration had the potential for a type 1-1 being confused for a type 2-1; and a type 2-1 being confused fop a type 2-2. It has been discovered that preferential loss of the "a" isozyme can be reversed by treatment of samples with a strong reducing agent. Stain samples containing mixtures of semen and saliva when extracted in a solution containing 50 mM Cleland's Reagent and 5%. glycerol demonstrate a typical semen PGM isozyme pattern. The same samples extracted in 5% glycerol reveal the altered PGM isozyme pattern. These experiments also demonstrate that once dried and frozen the deterioration of PGM in semen/saliva mixtures does not progress.


TOWARDS THE IDENTIFICATION OF SALLVI THE PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF A COMMERCIALLY PREPARED ANTI-HUMAN ALPHA-AMYLASE ANTISERUM
Spear, Theresa F. and Sharon A. Binkley, Alameda County Sherriff's Dept. Criminalistics Lab, San Leandro, CA, 94578 & Rodney H. Andrus, California State Justice Dept. Fresno

Human alpha-amylase is present in high concentrations in saliva and, in general, in much lower concentrations in other body fluids. The presence of high amylase activity In body fluid stains has been considered to be a positive, presumptive test for saliva. This study evaluated an anti-human, alpha-amylase antiserum prepared by Sigma Chemical Co. for its specificity and sensitivity in detecting human saliva stains. Stain material made from human saliva, perspiration, semen or vaginal fluid, urine and blood were tested against this antiserum using cross-over and rocket electrophoresis. The results of this study and the implications for the use of this antiserum in casework will be discussed.


DISTRIBUTION OF AMYLASE ACTIVITY IN VAGINAL SWABS: STUDIES ON CASE SAMPLES
Blake, Edward T., & Charles Cook Jr., Forensic Science Associates, and Jan Bashinski, Oakland P.D.

In order to determine whether saliva can be detected on vaginal swabs, we have surveyed case specimens for amylase activity using a calibrated radial diffusion assay; we have examined cases where no oral copulation was indicated by the victim in order to determine the range of amylase variation normally found in the vagina. This data provides the statistical criteria for determining when vaginal amylase levels are elevated as the result of oral copulation. Approximately 35% of our cases (161/464) involve some form of oral copulation. Our study population included 287 cases of which 102 involved oral copulation. The results demonstrate that proof of saliva in vaginal specimens is exceedingly difficult to obtain. Approximately 9%. of alleged oral copulation samples exceed the 99 percentile confidence limits; and only 2% exceed the 99.9% confidence limits.


THE CORRELATION OF ANGLE OF ONSET OF NYSTAGMUS WITH BLOOD ALCOHOL LEVEL: REPORT OF FIELD TRIAL
Morris, James L. Santa Clara County Laboratory of Criminalistics, 1557 Berger Drive, Suite B-2, San Jose, CA, 95112

The relationship between the angle of onset of gaze nystagmus and blood alcohol level has been reported in the literature. Police officers in a local Jurisdiction volunteered to measure angle of onset in DWI arrestees. The correlation between their measurements and the arrestee's blood alcohol level was then determined. The results of this field trial indicated that nystagmus is a useful field sobriety test. Its use as a predictor of blood alcohol level appears questionable, however.


O-TOLIDLNE/SILVER DOUBLE STAINING METHOD OF HAPTOGIOBIN PROTEIN IN THICK POLYACRYLAMIDE GELS
Sugiyama, B.A. and David B, Hong, B.S. Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Criminalistics Laboratory, 2020 w. Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles, CA, 90057

It has been shown that the methylamine-based silver stain is approximately 30 times more sensitive in detecting haptoglobin protein than staining with o-tolidine alone in order to enhance the detection of haptoglobin in thick polyacrylamide gradient gels (2.7mm or thicker), a strategy of staining initially with o-tolidine followed by overstaining with silver was employed. The procedures necessary to optimize this strategy is described.


THE USE OF FORMULARY REDUCER AND BLUE TONING AS ADJUNCTS TO THE SILVER STAINING OF PROTEINS IN AGAROSE GELS
White, J.M., Orange County Sherrif-Coroner, 550 North Flower St. Rm 201, Santa Ana, CA, 92703

Many laboratories have adopted the silver staining technique of willoughby and Lambert [Anal Bioch.. 130i353(l983)3 as modified by Boudowie [Electrophoresis., 5:174(1984)] A draw back in this technique is that gels left too long in the silver stain develop non specific background staining. These gels may be rehabitated by the application of a photographic technique. Formulary Reducer I [Photo Lab Index. 1979, Suppi #170] (Solution A, 7.5% Potassium Ferricyanide; Solution B, 20 parts H20) ) applied to these gels removes this background staining. Additionally, blue toning as described by Berson [Anal. Bioch.. 134:230(19830] (Solution I, 5% Fe[13: Solution II, ay. Oxalic Acid; Solution III, 3.5% K3Fe(CN)6: 1 part each I,II and III, 6 parts H20) gives added sensitivity in silver stained gels.


DRAFT GUIDELINES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAMS IN THE FORENSIC EXAMINATION OF HUMAN HAIR - INTERIM REPORT OF THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON QUALITY ASSURANCE OF THE COMMITTEE OF FORENSIC HAIR COMPARISON
Shaffer, Stephen A., The Institute of Forensic Science Criminalistics Laboratory, 22945 Webster Street, Oakland, CA, 94609

Our proposal suggests the use of a sequence of four test sets, each in turn consisting of several known and questioned samples to be intercom-pared. Each test set is circulated to all of the participants of the trial. One quality assurance trial thus consists of many examinations, each made by a series of examiners. The results for each examiner are evaluated in comparison to those of the other participants in the trial. The proposal outlined here is currently being tested with actual samples in circulation to eight test subjects. The purpose of this field evaluation is to revise the guidelines if required before a final recommendation is made. Input is also being sought from others in the profession through the presentation of this paper.


LEVELS OF EXCLUSION IN SEMEN ANALYSIS
Inman, Keith E., Forensic Science Services of California, 2501 Cherry Ave, #370, Signal Hill, CA, 90806

The objective of this paper is to propose that analysts make a distinction between the two different kinds of possible exclusions in semen analysis, and that different weights be placed on each type. Assume the case where the victim is an 0/secretor, the defendant/suspect is an 0/secretor, and A & H activity is found. Clearly, the semen donor is an A/secretor, that the semen stain is very concentrated, and that H activity only is detected. There is usually some reluctance to exclude the defendant/suspect under these circumstances, yet and exclusion could be classified as a first order exclusion: the second instance could be termed a second order exclusion. Full development of these concepts should lead to clearer communication of the caveats inherent to the interpretation of sexual assault data.


A DIFFERENT APPROACH TO THE USE OF P30 QUANTITATION IN THE ESTIMATE OF SEMEN DILUTION
Inman, Keith, E., Forensic Services of California, 2501 Cherry Ave. #370, Signal Hill, CA, 90806 and David Suglyama, Los Angeles Sherriff's Crime Lab

The objective of this paper is to propose a slightly different way of interpreting the results of a P30 quantitation in the analysis of semen. The usual philosophy assumes that the P30 concentration of the semen donor falls at the upper end of the distribution of P30 concentrations in the population. This routinely underestimates the amount of semen present. It may not always be advisable to so underestimate the semen dilution. Another approach is to calculate the range of possible semen dilutions, and also in this way, several alternatives may emerge in interpreting the ABH(0) data that would not be visible using the traditional calculation. This is a more accurate portrayal of the uncertainty that is actually present in this analysis.


DRUG IDENTIFICATION BY INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY
Perkins, W.D., The Perkin-Elmer Corp., 411 Clyde Ave., Mtn View, CA, 94043

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) offers a rapid and effective method for the identification of controlled substances. Computer techniques can be used for digital smoothing, baseline flattening, and reformatting, all of which facilitate comparisons with reference data. Difference Spectroscopy can be used to subtract the spectrum of a component from the spectrum of a mixture, again simplifying the identification process. The identification itself is always made by comparing the spectrum of the unknown drug with that of the corresponding known compound. Computer methods arc now widely and routinely used to search libraries of reference data to retrieve the spectra most closely matching that of the unknown substance. The final comparison can be made using hard copy spectra, but if libraries of reference spectra can be condensed and stored in computer memory, it is much more convenient to present the data directly on the display screen where they can be examined more rapidly. The sources and availability of condensed libraries, and the advantages and disadvantages of using them will be discussed.


OPTIMIZED SAMPLE INTRODUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR CAPILLARY CHROMATOGRAPHY
Davis, Michael A., Perkin-Elmer Corp., 411 Clyde Ave., Mtn View, CA, 94043

Personal computers have had limited application in the field of Criminalistics to date. Recent developments and soon-to-be introduced products promise important application in evidence examination, court presentations and basic research. Increased computer memory at markedly reduced costs combined with new low cost computers and a variety of new input and output devices will provide the Criminalist with powerful tools to increase productivity, enhance presentations and conduct research. Text readers, and video input devices will compensate for poorly developed typing skills. Increased internal machine memory and peripheral storage will allow graphics capabilities previously available only on main frames. New low cost printers and plotter will produce outstanding documents and drawings.


FORENSIC APPLICATION OF GC/MS WITH THE ION TRAP DETECTOR (TM)
Johnson, Eric K. and Dennis M. Chinn, Finnigan MAT, 355 River Oaks Parkway, San Jose, CA, 95134

The development of advanced techniques to the determination of target compounds within complex matrices, continues to be of high interest In the analytical community. Capillary column gas chromatography (GC) with conventional detection is often not sufficient to routinely characterize forensic samples which may contain unusual industrial or metabolic products. For these analytical problems, mass spectrometric (MS) detection has become an established technique, providing the required qualitative information as well as quantitative accuracy. The technique of capillary column GC/MS with an Ion Trap Detector (ITD) has been investigated for forensic applications, highlighting the powerful qualitative and quantitative ability provided by this analytical system. The instrumental theory and operation of the ITD, using its advanced data system, will be discussed. Many examples of the trace-level sensitivity and interference-free quantitation made possible with the ITD will be shown.


PATTERNS OF LOS OF SEMEN COMPONENTS FROM THE VAGINA AFTER COITUS
Sensabaugh, George F., University of California, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA, 94720

The decline in levels of semen components in the vagina post coitus can occur by four processes: Initial dilution by resident vaginal fluids, drainage, digestion by endogenous enzymes, and specific inactivation by endogenous agents such as specific inhibitors of antibodies. The first two affect all markers equally; the latter two have a marker specific component. Analysis of the patterns of loss of semen components indicates initial dilution and drainage are the main loss factors; only PepA appears to be affected by marker specific factors. Loss Kinetics for ACP, p30, LAP, and glutarnyl transferase are first order with an average half-life of about 2 hours (range 1-5 hours).


ENZYME IMMUNO ASSAY FOR M ANTIGEN
Sensabaugh, George F. and R.J. Kochenburger, University of California, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA, 94720

Enzyme immuno assays (EIAs) offer possible alternative approaches to more traditional methods of antigen detection. We describe here our efforts toward the development of an EIA for the MN red cell antigens. Glycophorins carrying the MN determinants have been solubilized from red cell membrane preparations and from washed bloodstains on fabric using a butanol extraction procedure. EIA of the extracted procedure has been successful only with a monoclonal anti-M. Polyclonal anti-M. anti-N, and monoclonal anti-N have exhibited unacceptable levels of non-specific binding or have not bound significantly. Use of a monoclonal anti-glycophorin A as a positive control allows true M negative reactions to be recognized thus making it possible to distinguish N. Blind analysis of blood stain samples has produced no errors. The parameters of M antigen decay have also been characterized. Many of the stains stores at room temperature are not typeable whereas most of the stains stored frozen could be typed.