66th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Fall 1985)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
October 24-26, 1985
Los Angeles, California

RED PHOSPHOROUS REVISITED -OR- NEW SLANTS ON A "NEO-CLASSICAL" METHANTPHETAMINE SYNTHESIS
Abercrombie, J. Thomas, Department of Justice, Bureau of Forensic Services Criminalistics Laboratory, 1500 Castellano Rd., P.O. Box 3679, Riverside, CA 92509

At a presentation last year, a synthetic procedure for producing methamphetamine utilizing a red phosphorous/hydroiodic acid/ephedrine route was shown to be eminently practical. Since that time, numerous clandestine laboratories using this procedure have been seized throughout the state. However, at some clandestine locations, modifications of the "original" procedure have been encountered. This presentation is two-fold:

  1. To verify the fact that the modified procedures are functional and do produce methamphetamine, and
  2. To gain an idea of the synthetic yields of the modified procedures.

AN IMPROVED EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE FOR GROUP SPECIFIC COMPONENT (GC) DETERMINATION USING 6M UREA
Jones, Donald, T.;Gregonis, Daniel J., Stockwell, David C., San Bernardino County Sheriff's Department, Regional Forensic Science Laboratory, P.O. Box 1557, San Bernardino, CA 92402

The serum protein Group Specific Component (Gc) is a very good discriminator (PD=0.57 in Caucasians) for use in forensic serology, however previous extraction techniques in this laboratory using a minimal amount of BAS Group III gel buffer have yielded poor results with blood stains older than one month. The use of 6M urea in the extraction buffer (as suggested for use with IEF, ELECTROPHORES1S. 1984, 5, 316-318) has been applied to conventional electrophoresis (BAS GroupIII) in attempt to improve the results of Gc typing. Gc phenotypes have been successfully determined using 6M urea on samples which had previously. given weak or negative results.


NARC(TM)-1 SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION OF DDELTA 9-CARBOXY-THC FROM URINE FOR THE ANALYSIS BY GC/MS OR TLC
Badesso, Richard J.; Ramsden, Hugh E.; Rush, Diane K.; and Patterson, Joseph M, Research and Development Laboratories, J.T. Baker Chemical Company, 222 Red School Lane, Phillipsburg, NJ 08865, (201) 859-2151

narc(tm)-1 Solid Phase Extraction is a simple and rapid technique for extracting delta-9-Carboxy-THC from urine. 98% recoveries can be achieved while at the same time removing all interferences. A rigorous adjustment of pH is not required. narc(tm)~l columns are prepacked with a selective sorbent and are disposable. This technique is performed in 4 steps consisting of:

  1. column conditioning with appropriate solvents,
  2. sample introduction by positive pressure or aspiration where the delta 9-Carboxy-THC is extracted and concentrated,
  3. washing Interfering substances with appropriate solvents, and
  4. selective elution of compounds of interest with 500 microliter aliquots or less of solution.

HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSFER OF DUST PRINTS TO A DARK COLORED PLASTIC FILM
Ojena, Stephen M. Contra Costa County Criminalistics Laboratory, 1122 Escobar Street, Martinez, CA 94553

Previously unrecoverable visible and invisible dust prints can be lifted onto a dark colored plastic film using a high voltage probe. The transferred print can be photographed and the plastic film with the dust lift can be preserved. Dust lifts can be transferred from a variety of surfaces including floors, doors, tables, counters, magazines, newspapers, fabric and human skin. A series of slides will demonstrate the process.


THE BASICS NECESSARY FOR CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY
Carruthers, Bob, Forensic Photography Instructor, Nikon Corporation

This presentation details the necessary equipment and step by step procedures necessary to properly photograph crime scenes. The emphasis is on proper technique, cameras, lenses and lighting. It will also include a short preliminary presentation on basic photography.


LEVELS AND DISTRIBUTION OF ABH AND LEWIS BLOOD GROUP SUBSTANCES IN VAGINAL SECRETIONS
Gibbons, M.M. Oakland Police Department, 455 Seventh Street Room 608, Oakland, CA 94607; Blake, E.T., Forensic Science Associates; Sensabaugh, G.F., University of California, Berkeley

The levels of ABH and Lewis blood group substances were measured by absorption-inhibition in semen free vaginal swab extracts collected from 75 females (for ABH) and 52 females (for Lewis). The range of levels (in reciprocal titer units) is as follows:

a A or B H n. Le a Le b
A-sec 240-1024 0-50 sec 43 0-10240-1024
B-sec 16 0-256 0-50 non sec 91-2560-2
0-sec 40 0-512

Attempts to describe the distribution of the blood group substances and to establish maximum levels for these substances in vaginal secretions (i.e. vaginal threshold levels) will be discussed.


ABH AND LEWIS TYPING: APPLICATION TO SELECTED PROBLEMS IN MIXTURES OF SEMEN AND VAGINAL SECRETIONS
Gibbons, M.M. Oakland Police Department, 455 Seventh Street, Room 608, Oakland, CA 94607; Blake, E.T., Forensic Science Associates, Emeryville, CA; Sensabaugh, G.F., University of California, Berkeley

This is a companion paper to "Levels and Distribution of ABH and Lewis Blood Group Substances in Vaginal Secretions." The use of threshold levels in the interpretation of typing results in mixtures of semen and vaginal secretions will be presented. Two situations which have consistently presented problems to the forensic serologist will be considered. They are (1) the interpretation of the significance of non-foreign ABH blood group substances, and (2) confirmation of the non secretor semen donor by Lewis typing. It will be demonstrated to what extent and under what sample conditions quantification of ABH and Lewis may aid in the resolution of these two difficult interpretive situations.


THE EVALUATION OF A GLYCOI-CLE1ANDS REAGENT FOR THE LONG TERM FREEZER STORAGE OF RED CELL LYSATES
White, J.M.; Keister, R.S. Orange County Sheriff-Coroner, Department of Forensic Science Services, 550 N. Flower, Santa Ana, CA 94702

Beneficial effects from the addition of Glycerol-Cleland's reagent to red cell lysates prepared for freezer storage has been suggested by E.T. Blake (Forensic Science Associates, Emeryville, California, personal communication). A reagent containing 5'/. w/v glycerol and 50mM DL-Di thiothreitol (Cleland's Reagent) was evaluated and was found to maintain much greater enzyme activity upon freezer storage when compared to untreated lysates for the enzymes EsD, PGM1, AK, and 6PGD, and ADA. A lesser difference was seen in the activity of the EAP isoenzymes between treated and untreated samples. Three blood samples were compared by electrophoresis of treated and untreated samples subjected to five freeze-thaw cycles over an eight week storage period. The Glycerol-Clel and treated samples maintained enzyme activity comparable to dried crusts of the same bloods stored similarly.


MASS SPECTROMETRY OF FENTANYL AND SELECTED ANALOGS
Yoshida, John, California Department of Justice; Dunham, Loren, Hewlett Packard Company

Synthetic analogs of Sublimaze (FentanyI) are appearing as street drugs with increasing frequency. These drugs fall into the category of so called Designer Drugs. Identification of the Fentanyl analogs presents a challenge to the forensic chemist as they are often difficult to separate by gas chromatography and the mass spectra are not found in the commonly used data bases. This work deals with the problem of chromatographic separation of several of the analogs and postulation of their fragmentation routes under electron impact mass spectrometry.


GRAPHOLOGY IN CORPORATE AMERICA; PERSONNEL SELECTION AND PROMOTION GUIDED BY HANDWRITING ANALYSIS
Di1lon, Duayne J., Criminalistics Services Center, P.O. Box 488, Martinez, CA 94553

In the past five years, an increasing number of articles have appeared in the literature extolling the use of graphology to ascertain the personality traits of job applicants as well as the promotions & viability of employees. Advocated as an unobtrusive, non-discriminatory, highly accurate tool for the personnel selection process, this technique is purportedly gaining increasing acceptance in business throughout this country. The use of such an unvalidated, controversial and often secret procedure in the hiring and advancement of employees raises serious ethical and legal questions. It is curious, considering the objections raised to the use of lie detection techniques to determine employee honesty, that the use of graphology for similar purposes has not caused comparable concerns.


PRECISION OF THE AVERAGE CURVATURE MEASUREMENT IN HUMAN HEAD HAIRS
Bailey, James G. and Schliebe, Stephan A., Los Angeles Sheriff's Criminalistics Laboratory, 2020 W. Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90057

The average curvature measurement was first described by anthropologist Daniel Hardy in his paper published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology (1973) 39:7. Since that time, it has been found to be useful in the forensic comparison of curly human head hairs, but no information on the precision of the method had been published. Two experiments have been devised to help answer this question. A single, curly, Caucasian head hair was measured 30 times by one examiner, and independently 30 times by a second examiner. The mean and standard deviation was calculated for the results of both examiners and compared. Twenty hairs from each of four brothers and their father were also subjected to the average curvature measurement by the two examiners, and the mean and standard deviation for each sample was calculated and compared.


TECHNICAL NOTE: LINEAR REGRESSION BY COMPUTER
Houde, John, Ventura County Sheriff's Crime Laboratory, Ventura, CA 93009

A method of generating a straight line representation of scatter plot data using a program in BASIC is presented. Most laboratory procedures provide data which can be organized in tabular form but which is time consuming to plot on graph paper. The program presented will accept the data in random order, sort it, and plot it on an X-Y coordinate plot. Additionally, the slope intercept equation is calculated and the resulting "least squares" line of best fit is overlaid on the point data.


DISCRIMINATION OF AUTOMOTIVE TOPCOAT PAINTS BY SCANNING ELECTRON ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY ANALYSIS
Beam. Terri L., Orange County Sheriff Coroner, 550 N. Flower St., Santa Ana, CA 92702

Elemental analyses by SEM-EDXA of original automotive topcoat paints can be used to discriminate between different paint samples. Slight differences in elemental compositions in paints of the same color, but made by different manufacturers can be seen by this technique. In this study, development of a valid testing protocol involved optimization of several test parameters to insure reproducible results with SEM-EDXA. Energy dispersive x-ray data were collected and subsequently analyzed semi-quantitatively from each paint sample. Relative comparisons of the spectral data indicate statistically significant variation between different samples of paint.


PYROTECHNIC RESIDUES IN GUNSHOT RESIDUE ANALYSIS
Segara, H.M.; Kong, M.C., Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Criminalistics Laboratory

When a firearm is discharged, gunshot primer residues are propelled through the gaps in the firearm mechanism and deposited on the hands of the shooter. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis has been used to identify particles consistent with gunshot primer residue.

The condensation products of pyrotechnic devices will produce particles of similar morphology to those found in gunshot primer residues. Since compounds containing barium and antimony can be found in pyrotechnic devices, the dual criteria of morphology and elemental composition may be obtained. This paper will investigate the possibility of residues from pyrotechnic devices being confused with gunshot primer residues.


THE USE OF THE CHEMICAL SPACER (MOPS) IN THE SIMULTANEOUS NON-EQUILIBRIUM ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING OF ES-D AND P6M1
Kuo, Sze-Ern, Los Angeles Police Department, 150 N. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, CA 90012

The use of the chemical spacer 3[N-Morpholinolpropanesulfonic acid (MOPS) and non-equilibrium isoelectric focusing (or electrophoresis in a pH gradient) enabled the simultaneous identification of the 6 Es-D phenotypes and the 10 PGM-1 phenotypes.