61st SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Spring 1983)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
May 12-14, 1983
San Francisco, California

PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILING OF CRIMINAL PERSONALITIES BASED ON CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION
Blaine D. McIlwaine, FBI, San Francisco, P.O. Box 36015, 450 Golden Gate Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94102

Psychological profiling based on a careful and detailed examination of the homicidal crime scene and a study of the victim (victimology) can yield positive results in gaining insight into the mind of the perpetrator. An investigator must have knowledge of the various types of criminals who commit such murders. For years the Behavioral Science Unit at the FBI Academy has conducted research and provided profiles of personalities. The unit works up over 300 cases yearly and has an amazing success rate. The Bureau uses the terms "organized" and "disorganized" to define the personalities and types of crime scenes they are likely to leave. If enough psychopathology is present and properly recorded, a profile can determine age, sex, occupation and educational levels, social background, residence in relation to crime scene, types of automobile, personality characteristics and suggested interview techniques. Psychological profiling is at present an art, but could become a science in the future based on continued research.


SHOTGUN IDENTIFICATION BY S.E.M.
Boyd G. Stephens, M.D., Chief Medical Examiner/Coroner, 850 Bryant St., San Francisco, California 94103

A homicide victim, shot at contact range with a sawed off double barreled shotgun, wore a leather vest. On the vest was the imprint of the gun. The gun, recovered some time later, had been cut with a large tooth saw, probably in a mechanical unit. By most methods, only a class comparison could be made. However, by using SEM, and the embossed saw marks seen in the leather, a specific match to the shotgun was made. The case is presented to support the types of use versatile type of equipment offers the crime investigator.


TWO UNUSUAL IDENTIFICATIONS
HUBERT A. FRANK, Criminalist, California Department of Justice, Salinas Regional Laboratory, 745 Airport Blvd., Salinas, CA 93901

  1. A repainted helmet that was discarded in an armed robbery was identified as being the same helmet in a nonscaled photograph that was taken during a search warrant four years prior.
  2. A screwdriver used in a residential burglary was identified by an unusual impression on a doorknob. The impression reflected the random heat pitted surface of the chrome plated chrome vanadium (steel) shank of the screwdriver.

BUCKSHOT PATTERN INTERPRETATION
HERBERT LEON MACDONELL, M.S., Director, Laboratory of Forensic Science, Post Office Box 1111, Corning, New York 14830 and SARA AUSTIN MOORE, Research Assistant

An in-depth examination of buckshot patterns has disclosed certain reproducible geometric relationships. In shooting cases wherein the target receives less than the total pellet charge from a given round, it may be possible to predict the kind of weapon in which it could or could not have been discharged. The method of examination was simply to color code individual shotgun pellets, test fire them into white cardboard targets, and to observe, trace and measure the results. Application of this information may be rare; however, it provides a better understanding of why buckshot patterns are produced in their characteristic manner. Correlation between shotgun shells loaded with buckshot and the patterns they produce is logical, easily understandable and demonstrably reproducible under certain limits of discharge distance.


COMPARISON MICROSCOPY
RAYMOND J. DAVIS, Director, Quantum Analytical Laboratory, Seattle, WA

The application of comparison microscopy is well documented in the forensic literature. The microscopic examination of hairs, fibers, and toolmark striations lends itself to the use of this well known forensic tool.

This paper will present a recent design modification in the Leitz polarized light comparison microscope. The paper will also include the use of the LABORLUX 12 Pol Scope for both transmitted and reflected light comparison microscopy.


USE OF MICROAPERTURES IN THE INFRARED ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE SAMPLES, AT THE NANOGRAM LEVEL, UTILIZING A BENCHTOP HIGH PERFORMANCE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETER SYSTEM
J. WILLIAM MOHAR, Analect Instruments, Irvine, CA 92714

Small fiber and paint chips are two materials frequently encountered by the criminalist. Infrared characterization of these samples is difficult utilizing traditional sampling methods. Paint chips have been reliably analyzed via high pressive diamond anvil cells, however the cells themselves are relatively expensive and require sample sizes on the order of several hundred nanograms. In the micro aperture technique the sample, which can be as small as one nanogram or less, rests on a tiny chip of a salt crystal so that it is held over an aperture of 20 to 200 microns in diameter. The technique yields excellent results. It has been used in art authentication and spectral subtractions of paint in fiber samples during a hit and run investigation.


THE DIRECTION AND STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH IN THE FORENSIC SCIENCES
G. F. SENSABAUGH, Forensic Science Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley 94720

Development of a research policy for the forensic sciences requires

  1. an appreciation of significant problems in the field,
  2. a recognition of who is doing and who can do the appropriate research, and
  3. a commitment to support the research effort.

A survey of the literature of the past five years reveals that most research involves methods development although there is an increasing concern with interpretive problems, ie., basic research. The origin of papers from the U.S. is: academic - 40%, practicing lab - 48%, federal research lab - 4% and industry - 8%. Support for forensic science research measured in terms of grant support and personnel allocation has dropped considerably from 1977 to 1982. The U.S. effort compares poorly to other civilized countries.


CURRENT STATUS OF PROPOSED CHANGES RELATING TO BREATH ALCOHOL ANALYSIS
DANIEL R. MORALES, Ph.D., State Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA 94704

In collaboration with its Advisory Committee on Alcohol Determination, the Department of Health Services is proposing two important types of amendments to regulations relating to breath alcohol analysis (Title 17, California Administrative Code).

  1. The present regulations permit the use only of breath testing instruments which have performed satisfactorily in laboratory evaluations conducted by the Department of Health Services There is now the proposal that the Qualified Products List of breath testing instruments, issued by NHTSA (The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation), constitute the list of approved instruments for California.
  2. The present regulations permit the use of captured breath samples for later analysis when distance makes it impractical to transport an arrested person to a breath testing instrument. This usage has become confused with the concept of retention of breath samples for "referee analysis" by the defense. The Advisory Committee concluded that there is no scientific need or reason to retain a breath sample for "referee analysis" using the procedures required in California.

EFFECT OF WOOD GRAIN ON CALCULATED INCIDENT ANGLE OF IMPACT WITH BLOODSPATTER EVIDENCE
ANITA YOUNT WONDER, M.A.Cr.J., Wonder Institute, An Independent Forensic Science Research Group, Sacramento, Calif. 95825

It has been welt demonstrated by Herbert MacDonell and associates that primarily surface material, not distance traveled, is responsible for the final bloodstain appearance at a crime scene. Angular measurements calculated for angle of impact between full sized blood drops and a selection of hard, smooth, nonabsorbent surfaces show negligible vari-ations. Differentially absorbent surfaces, however, may effect the linear measurements necessary for calculating incident angles, thus effect the angles reported. This paper will illustrate the theoretical and actual variations which may and do occur on wood when blood drops hit an angular surface at different angles to the grain, and what effect surface treat-ment has on the calculation error. Although theoretical and actual variations may occur, competent evaluation of the factors involved can prevent discrediting testimony in court.


CHANGES IN THE PHYSICAL APPEARANCE OF BLOODSPATTER EVIDENCE CAUSED BY DIFFERENT DEGREES OF CLOTTING
ANITA YOUNT WONDER, M.A.Cr.J., wonder Institute, An Independent Forensic Science Research Group, Sacramento, California, 95825

Attempts by suspects to explain evidence linking them to bloodied crime scenes often include the statement that evidence was created some time after the criminal event. Dispersion, however, of freshly shed partially clotted or partially retracted blood all yield recognizable stain patterns which can permit accurate discrediting of suspect fabrications. By using EDTA complexed fresh blood and sufficient Calcium to promote coagulation, the effects on medium velocity bloodspatter, using a series of similar rattrap devices, are demonstrated with regard to time and temperature.

Stains resulting from the different degrees of clotting can be distinguished from fresh spatter. Competent recognition of these differences can thus be used to refute, or confirm, suspect statements.


SEROLOGY HANGING BY A THREAD
M. BLAKE, J. BASHINSKI, Oakland Police Department, E. BLAKE, Forensic Science Associates

During the commission of a recent armed robbery in Oakland, gunfire was exchanged between the suspect and victim. A bullet recovered from the scene, and later identified as having been fired from the victim's gun, had bloody tissue and a mixture of black fibers and white fibers adhering to its nose. When a suspect with an unexplained bullet wound was developed, the bloody tissue on the bullet was typed in six systems, all of which matched the genetic types of the suspect. As luck would have it, however, the victim, who bled extensively at the scene also possessed this same combination of types, raising some question as to the value of the typing in placing the suspect at the scene. Enter trace evidence! A mixture of extraneous black fibers and white fibers was found in the bullet hole in the suspect's shirt. These fibers were compared to the fibers removed from the bullet and both fiber samples were identified as similar mixtures of black rayon and white acrylic fibers. No source of similar fibers was found in the victim's clothing. The end-use frequency of the identified black rayon fibers was researched and found to be restricted almost exclusively to color-fast grey sweatshirt fabric. The fiber and serology results in this case were critical in connecting the suspect to the scene.


ST. VALENTINE'S DAY, 3.929 - A FORENSIC LANDMARK
J. D. DeHAAN, Calif. Dept. of Justice, P. 0. Box 13337, Sacramento, CA 95813

The machine gun deaths of seven men in a Chicago garage on St. Valentine's Day, 1929 was a landmark in criminal justice for it had consequences far beyond what its participants planned, It was a "final outrage" - an abuse of law and decency that even the citizens of Chicago could no longer tolerate. The Cook County Coroner convened a special Grand Jury; made up of prominent Chicago businessmen and civic leaders, the first of its kind. Not satisfied with the limited "scientific" crime detection available locally, this eminent group called for specialists like Calvin Goddard. Wealthy members of the Grand Jury offered to pay his expenses in the interests of justice. Goddard's participation gained international recognition for firearms identification and crime scene reconstruction. His success in this case resulted in the establishment of one of the first scientific crime labs in the U.S. and eventually led to the founding of a forensic journal. The crime itself was never solved. Although the weapons used were later found, no one was ever brought to trial. This report will examine the Massacre from the standpoint of the evidence available now and offer a solution to the mystery. It will also evaluate this crime's impact - on its victims and its perpetrators, and on the criminal justice system and the forensic sciences.


THE MISSING BULLET - SHERLOCK HOLMES TEACHES AGAIN!
B. G. Stephens, M.D., J. J. Ferrer, M.D., George Reed, M.D. Office of the Medical Examiner-Coroner, City and County of San Francisco

In spite of all that is taught, there is still a common belief that "the caliber of the gun - at least big or small and the number of gunshot wounds" can be determined by looking at the skin injuries. This interesting lesson points out again, what experienced scene investigators have learned so many times in the past. But just in case, this is an example worth filing in your memory banks.


DANGER OF CONTAGION FROM CRIME SCENE EVIDENCE COLLECTION B. G. Stephens, M.D., J. J. Ferrer, M.D. Office of the Medical Examiner-Coroner, City and County of San Francisco

With the current concern about the possibility of acquiring AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), and the fact that the exact means of transmission is yet unknown, what is the likelihood of an investigator picking such an infection from contact with suspects suffering from AIDS: evidence with biological contamination; or in the laboratory, is discussed. This brief presentation, with detail information currently known about the common infectious diseases of concern to the scene investigator, as well as the logical protection steps that should be routine or available procedure, should help prevent potential contamination and risk.


FORENSIC INK ANALYSIS: WHAT IS STATE-OF-THE-ART?
ALBERT H. LYTER III, M.S., Federal Forensic Associates. Los Angeles. CA 90036

Forensic Ink Analysis has progressed over the years to become a very sophisticated specialty utilizing state-of-the-art technology. The history of ink analysis includes the development of both physical and chemical examination techniques. These, along with the latest technological advances, will be discussed. Both scientific principles and experimental conditions will be related in context to practical problem solving, including batch differentiation and relative aging of documents.


SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ACETYLCODEINE AND O6-MONOACETYLMORPHINE BY GC/MS
ALAN B. CLARK, Drug Enforcement Administration, National City, California 92050

On occasion, it is necessary to separate and conclusively identify the acetylcodeine (Ac) and O^-monoacetylmorphine (06) usually found in heroin samples. Current gas chromatographic methodology, involving derivatization with bistrimethylsilylacetamide (BSA), provides a means to separate these substances for quantitation, but does not provide conclusive identification. Therefore, the AC/O6/BSA solution prepared for GLC analysis was subjected to analysis by GC/MS. It was verified that sufficient chromatographic separation between Ac and 06 existed to obtain an uncontaminated mass spectrum of each, thus providing conclusive identification.


A STEP IN TIME...
B. G. Stephens, M.D., J. J. Ferrer, M.D., George Reed, M.D. Office of the Medical Examiner-Coroner, City and County of San Francisco

Patterned evidence or injury is frequent fodder for forensic scientists. Recognition, collection and court presentation of some interesting footprint cases is shown to support the increasing need for the collection and documentation of this evidence, especially from some unusual places.


A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO TRACE EVIDENCE EXAMINATION
PETER D. BARNETT, Forensic Science Associates

A complete examination for trace evidence is a time consuming task. Since, in general, no prejudgments of the type of trace evidence which may be significant in any particular case can be made; the criminalist must approach the examination in a completely general way. In a typical trace evidence case, the examiner may note hundreds, or even thousands, of potentially significant evidence items. Classifying, tracking and, if necessary, retrieving, all of these items becomes a very difficult task The use of a standardized "key" to describe trace evidence material allows a systematic approach to the classification of observed items. The development of such a key, and the use of the key combined with a micro computer will be discussed. Case examples of the utility of such a procedure will be given. The development of a database of the frequency of occurrence of trace evidence can assist in the statistical evaluation of the significance of trace evidence.


OBSERVED UNUSUAL "RED CELL" ACID PHOSPHATASE PHENOTYPE
WILLIAM K. CARLTON, B.S., Criminalist, Department of Justice, Criminalistics Laboratory, Fresno, CA 93710

In recent attempted robbery, an unusual ACP (EAP) pattern was observed. Since this pattern was observed both in stains collected from the scene and in the blood from the suspect, it is felt that the pattern is due to a genetic variant and not anomaly. The phenotype has yet to be identified.


PLEASURABLE PAIN ?
B. G. Stephens, M.D., J. J. Ferrer, M.D., Fred Walker, M.D. Office of the Medical Examiner-Coroner, City and County of San Francisco

Without some training, the average investigator may not likely appreciate some of the dangers and apparatus commonly used in Sado-Masochistic sex practices. This presentation shows some of the street literatures and compares that to several, scenes detailing certain key features to recognize potential danger and information needed to help differentiate ACCIDENTAL death from HOMICIDAL death, as well as recognition of some of the apparatus used in this increasingly widespread sexual activity.


CHICKEN FEATHERS AND DRUM BEATS!
B. G. Stephens, M.D., J. J. Ferrer, M.D. Office of the Medical Examiner-Coroner, City and County of San Francisco

Voodoo has been a part of the Americas for a long time. Usually, this is "white" magic-like ritual that is needed to insure a successful crime investigation. However, lately an increasing incidence of "black" magic has been seen in the United States. This case presentation details some of the scene findings and significance of one such homicide, as well as some of the significance of the findings.