62nd SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Fall 1983)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
October 20-22, 1983
Ontario, California

FIREARMS MANUFACTURING METHODS RESULTING IN CONCENTRIC TOOLMARKS
Bill Matty, California Dept. of Justice, Riverside Regional Laboratory

Certain parts of firearms which mark cartridge cases during firing are machined in such a way as to leave concentric ring toolmarks. Parts made by two different methods are studied. The individuality of cartridges marked by such parts will be discussed.


THE COMPARISON AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOOLMARKS ON THE BASE OF REMINGTON SEMI-JACKETED BULLETS
Philip M. Kellett, M.S., San Bernardino County Sheriff's Regional Forensic Science Laboratory

Recently, this department investigated a homicide in which the suspected murder weapon (a Smith and Wesson 357 Magnum revolver) was recovered without a barrel or cylinder. Fortunately, ammunition was recovered from the suspect, and bullets from these cartridges were compared to the fatal bullet.

The questioned bullet is a semi-jacketed bullet having a diameter of approximately 0.36 inch. The bullet weighs 136 grains and has five land and five groove impressions. The widths of the land impressions are consistent with the class characteristics of Smith and Wesson revolvers. The base of the questioned bullet has a stepped heel. This observation led me to believe that the fatal bullet was manufactured by Remington Arms.

A total of seventy-two Remington 357 Magnum cartridges with semi-jacketed, soft-point bullets (158 grains) were recovered from the suspect. The toolmark present on the base of the questioned bullet was compared to the toolmarks on the bases of nineteen bullets pulled from the cartridges found in the suspect's residence. Seven of these were identified to the questioned bullet.


PRESERVATION OF POWDER PATTERNS USING "SCOTCHGUARD"
Richard S. Brown, Orange County Sheriff-Coroner Crime Laboratory

The use of powder patterns on clothing to determine approximate distances between a given weapon and the target is well-known. There are many variables to consider when a powder pattern or any other trace evidence is evaluated. One of the most important variables is the preservation of the article of interest from the time of initial discovery to the time of laboratory analysis. In this study "Scotchguard Fabric Protector", a liquid fluorocarbon, is used to preserve powder patterns made through test firings in a controlled environment. Non-interference with blood enzyme systems, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and the Modified Griess Test for Nitrites is demonstrated. Possible future applications of liquid fluorocarbons for trace evidence preservation and transportation are discussed.


A NOVEL METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE SIZE OF FIRE DAMAGED TENNIS SHOES FROM PARTIAL BLOODSTAINED TRACKS
Greg Laskowski, Kern County Sheriff's Criminalistics Laboratory

In a recent Kern County double homicide, a pair of burned tennis shoes were recovered which were believed to have been worn by one of the suspects. However, when the suspect was subsequently arrested, he was wearing a larger pair of shoes than those recovered; yet his feet were three sizes smaller.

This paper will describe the pitfalls and successes of crime scene examination, identification of blood transfer patterns, and a method for the determination of shoe size from worn or damaged tennis shoes.


CRIMINALISTIC INFLATION
James W. Brackett, Jr., Santa Clara County Laboratory of Criminalistics

Criminalistic services are increasingly affected by externally imposed requirements which cause more internal work with in increase in productivity. When not offset by corresponding increase in allotted resources, this phenomenon is somewhat equivalent to monetary inflation. Causes of this so-called "Criminalistic Inflation" are many. Administrative, budgetary, and court decisions, emphasis on exculpatory evidence, federal grants, hygienic improvements, judicial and legislative mandates, and numerous other persuasive rulings save time and benefit other arms of the criminal justice system but impede the laboratory in the accomplishment of its primary mission, the examination of physical evidence. Examples of Criminalistic inflation will be presented; they are familiar to all. Laboratory managers attempt to neutralize these adverse forces by acquisition of additional resources, elimination of unnecessary work, direct and indirect prioritization of duties, reduction of services, and automation of clerical and laboratory operations. Success has been limited; the inflationary trend, fueled by limited government revenues, continues.


THE CASE OF THE "IMPOSSIBLE" SHINGLE TRANSFER
Sze-Ern KUO, B.S., M.S., Los Angeles Police Department Laboratory of Criminalistics

An explosion collapsed the roof of a garage. Arson was suspected. Detectives submitted shingle fragments found in one of the suspect's car and roofing material fragments taken at the scene to the Laboratory for comparison. The hypothesis was that the vehicle was at the scene when the explosion occurred and that the explosion deposited the shingle fragments into the suspect's vehicle.

This paper is a description of the unusual discoveries when the evidence was examined and how the apparent inconsistencies later strengthen the theory of transfer.


GUN COLLECTION VERIFICATION: RANDOM CHECKING
Frank H. Cassidy, California Department of Justice, Santa Barbara Criminalistics Laboratory

Laboratories that have gun collections should have some method to verify that their collection remains intact. Our laboratory, to supplement our yearly 100% check, has instituted a monthly random check of our guns to add confidence that guns are not surreptitiously removed during the year.

This paper describes the method employed and the philosophy behind the random check to accomplish:

1. A high confidence level that no gun is missing; and 2. Utilization of a minimum of expended manpower.


RETENTION OF BREATH ALCOHOL SAMPLES FROM AN INTOXILYZER
Kathryn J. Holmes, Jerry W. Cauthen, Grady L. GolSman, Eric Lawrence, Richard A. Schorr, Susan L Swarner*, Contra Costa County Criminalistics Laboratory

Molecular sieve 13 x and three types of silica gel absorption devices were used to collect alcohol samples from an Intoxilyzer Model 4011A. The Intoxilyzer samples were obtained from known water-alcohol solutions in simulators, from volunteer test subjects who had ingested known amounts of alcohol, and from subjects arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol. The collected samples were analyzed by heated headspace gas chromatography. The results were compared with the corresponding Intoxilyzer reading and in some cases with blood samples collected at the time of the Intoxilyzer test.

Molecular sieve proved highly difficult to work with due to its change in ability to capture alcohol with time. Of the three types of silica gel tubes, those purchased from Toxtrap, Inc. gave the most accurate and reliable results. However, the Toxtrap devices were not as accurate or as reliable as the Intoxilyzer when compared to simulator or blood samples.


MICROCRYSTAL TESTS FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME 1-ARYLCYCLOHEXYLAMINES
Hiram K. Evans, M.S., San Bernardino County Sheriff's Regional Forensic Science Laboratory

Thirty-seven reagents were tested with eleven arylcyclohexylamines at concentrations of 1 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. The reagents yielding crystalline precipitates most often at the lower drug concentration, and those reagents previously reported in the literature as applicable to the arylcyclohexylamines, were examined in depth, comparing experimental results with those reported previously. Three reagents were selected which will yield crystals of sufficient specificity for identification of the drugs by this method, subject, of course, to confirmation by an alternate analytical method.


SALIVA ANALYSIS: LIMITATIONS AND PRECAUTIONS
Faye A. Springer*, Jim Hall, Steve Secofsky, California Dept. of Justice, Riverside Regional Laboratory

Most criminalists analyze for saliva by the detection of the enzyme amylase. Although amylase is found in high concentration in saliva, it can also be detected in other body fluids. This paper compares the amylase levels and gene loci of matched donor samples of perspiration, semen (vaginal fluid), and saliva. The results of this comparison show that some perspiration samples are sufficiently high in amylase activity where they may be misinterpreted as saliva. Furthermore, some seminal fluid samples appear as amylase1 locus rather than the usual amylase2 locus. This should be a cause for concern in determining if a seminal stain from case material also has saliva present.


EsD TYPING OF BLOODSTAINS BY ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING
James M. White, B.S., Orange County Sheriff-Coroner Crime Laboratory

A recent report by Horscroft and Sutton (J. For. Sci. Soc. 23, 2, 139 (1983)) describes the focusing of EsD phenotypes. Their description of the EsD 2-1 banding pattern and their proposed location of the EsD 2 phenotype are in conflict with other published work (Claisen et al, Hum. Genet. 57, 351 (1981): Kuhnl, Arztl tab 27, 255 (1981); Dykes et al, Hum. Genet. 62, 162 (1982)). They also performed a stability study and concluded that only stains up to 48 hours old could be successfully typed.

In this study, blood stains of known EsD phenotypes 1, 2-1, 2 and 5-1 were analyzed during room temperature storage for 25 days by agarose gel electrophoresis (TEMM pH 7.4) and isoelectric focusing (0.45 mm polyacrylamide gels, 5%T 3%C, containing Servalytes® pH 5-7 and 5-6 at a 1:1 ratio) focused for 14 hours at 1600 volts after a pre-run up to 1600 V at a 10 ma limit. Samples were applied 3 cm from the anode. After focusing, the side anodic of the application point was stained for EsD while the cathodic side was stained for PGM.

The phenotype patterns found by isoelectric focusing were in agreement with Olaisen, Kuhnl and Dykes and in conflict with those proposed by Horscroft and Sutton.

Additionally, although aged EsD stains showed progressive anodal banding when focused, the EsD 5-1 bloodstains were clearly differentiated by isoelectric focusing after 25 days storage while indistinguishable from the 2-1 stains by agarose gel electrophoresis.


THE LINDBERGH KIDNAPPING CASE A HALF-CENTURY LATER
Lucien C. Haag, Consultant

Although over 50 years have passed since the 20-month old son of Charles Lindbergh was kidnapped, criticisms and questions regarding the subsequent association of Bruno Richard Hauptmann with this crime and the death of the child persist today. The retention of the bulk of the reports, documents, physical evidence and trial exhibits from this case by the New Jersey State Police and a recent executive order making this evidence accessible has allowed for a contemporary evaluation of some of these questions.

In January of 1983 the author had occasion to re-examine the major items of physical evidence with the exception of the handwriting evidence. This presentation will review this evidence as it appears today as well as the events of the original investigation, the arrest and trial of Hauptmann, his execution and the issues that remain.