57th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Spring 1981)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
May 15-17, 1981
Pasadena, California

WHITHER CAC?
EDWARD F. RHODES, D. Crim., L.A. Co. Sheriff's Criminalistics Laboratory, L.A., Calif. 90057

The CAC was founded 28 years ago by a small group of determined men practicing in a new and rapidly expanding field. The purposes of the organization were generally to foster an exchange of ideas and information, to establish friendship and cooperation, and to encourage a high level of competence and ethics. In the past few years, the Association has witnessed a rigorous test of these goals, especially in the area of ethics. The CAC has risen to the task by strengthening its ethics procedure, establishing study groups, expanding the role of the training & resources committee and lengthening cocktail hours at meetings. Continued progress toward the goals of the Association, are more than ever dependent on its members being PARTICIPANTS rather than observers. Without this involvement and commitment by its members the CAC can never hope to meet the changing needs of the profession and its members.


SYNTHETIC METHODS OF USE IN THE ILLICIT MANUFACTURE OF FENTANYL AND RELATED COMPOUNDS
JAMES L. NORRIS, Santa Clara County Laboratory of Criminalistics, San Jose. CA

The major synthetic pathways for producing Fentanyl, N-(1-phenethyl-4 piperidyl) propionanilide citrate, and its substituted derivatives are outlined. These procedures are those which are available in the open literature and, no doubt, would be employed in illicit manufacture of these drugs. Also discussed are various dosage levels of these compounds.


EFFECT OF FLUOSOL-DA 20% ON THE TYPEABILITY OF GENETIC MARKERS IN BLOOD
RONALD R. LINHART, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Criminalistics Laboratory

As the use of perfluorocarbon emulsions as blood transfusion substitutes increases, the chance of encountering such transfused bloods in the crime laboratory increases. Fluosol-DA 20% was obtained from Alpha Therapeutic Corporation and mixed with blood samples from 16 donors in ratios of 1:5 and 1:10. Serum and cells were separated from the Fluosol-DA by centrifugation and frozen. The lysed ceils were typed in the EAP, ADA, AK, PGD, GLO-I, EsD, PGM, and CAII systems. The sera were typed in the Hp, Gc, and Tf systems. Mixture of Fluosol-DA with blood had no observable effect on the typeability of any of the genetic markers investigated


INCLUSIONS IN GEMSTONES: NATURES INFALLIBLE FINGERPRINTS
JOHN I. KOIVULA, BSC., G.G., F.P.A., Mineralogist-Senior Research Gemolociist, Gemological Institute of America, Santa Monica, CA, 90404

Portability and high monetary value have made orecious stones a common target of thieves throughout history. It is standard practice in the gem trade to record the color and cutting style of valuable gemstones by means of a color photograph and then measure and weigh the gem to complete the record. When stolen however, gemstones, if they are of any significant value, are commonly recut to change both their external shape and measurements as well as their weight. This recutting obviously negates the gem's previous record. Nature however, routinely decorates the interiors of gemstones with characteristic inclusions of solids, liquids and/or gases that remain even after recutting. Like human fingerprints, no two inclusion patterns are ever alike. Utilizing specialized photomicrographic techniques to record these images on film provides each gem documented in this manner with a permanent record that is easily recognizable and cannot be removed.


SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS OF THE SHROUD OF TURIN
S. F, Pelllcori, MSc, Santa Barbara Research Center and Team, Member: Shroud of Turin Research Project

The results of the non-destructive tests performed in 1978 will be presented. The goal of the investigation was to determine the chemistry of the body image and its origin. A secondary goal was the identification of the blood stains. Multidisciplinary data includes UV-VIS spectroreflectomerty, photomicroscopy, x-ray fluorimetry, UV fluorimetry, IR-spectrophotometry and microchemical evaluation of retrieved fibrils. The various historical hypotheses for explaining the image will be examined according to the picture presented by the observations. Those not fitting the assembly of data are eliminated. Anew hypothesis, deduced from the observations, will be discussed. Laboratory simulations reproduced the Shroud spectrophotometric and microscopic results, thus adding weight to the deduced chemical explanations for body and blood markings. We conclude with a summary of what is known and what is not known about the Shroud features.


ART CRIMES; ITS ECONOMIC, HISTORIC AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS. AN INTRODUCTION ON DETERMINING VARIOUS CLASSIFICATIONS OF GRAPHIC ARTS
LEONARD POTESHMAN, M.A.P., Art Grimes Consultant, formerly with the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, Art Crimes Unit

Introduction and background of Art Crimes. Statistics to the magnitude and financial loss internationally. Museums as well as private collectors are vulnerable to loss of art collections by a more sophisticated as well as common thief. Fences are aware of an. increasing market for stolen art, thus making Art Crimes one of the fastest growing crimes in the world. Fraudulent art is becoming epidemic in proportion, affecting collectors purchasing art as an investment. Discussion of technical variations in the art of graphics, and dealing with the fragility of art pieces, ancient and contemporary.


DEVELOPMENT OF A SAFETY GUIDELINE FOR FORENSIC LABORATORIES BY CITY, COUNTY, STATE, AND FEDERAL GOVERNMENTS
JOE RYNEARSON, California Department of Justice, Redding, CA 96003

The short and long term exposure hazards to which forensic personnel are subjected have in recent years become more obvious. Revelations in carcinogen research and development of preventative measures against biological contamination plus advance in medical surveillance techniques have been combined with applicable sections of OSHA guidelines, emergency preparedness plans, National Electric Code, Uniform Building Code, Hazardous Materials Control Act, and Safe Drinking Water Act to form a guideline applicable to any Forensic Laboratory. Chapters include Chemical, Biological, Instrumental/Mechanical Hazards as well as Facilities Requirements and Activities external to the Lab (clandestine labs, autopsies, crime scenes, drug and weapons destruction). This document provides a structure which any laboratory can augment to suit specific needs.


DWI IN WASHINGTON - AN APPRAISAL OF THE BLOOD ALCOHOL TESTING PROCEDURE: SCIENCE OR SCIENCE FICTION?
RAYMOND J. DAVIS. B.A., Consultant in Forensic Science

This paper will briefly outline the DWI statue in the State of Washington. Recent legislative action has shifted the onus of the presumption of intoxication onto the shoulders of the driving public by establishing the 0.10% (W/V) blood alcohol level as conclusive evidence of driving impairment. Specifically, this paper will outline the current blood alcohol testing procedures established by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC). Breath tests are the exclusive manner in which blood alcohol levels are determined from individuals suspected of WDI However, blood samples are sometimes taken from individuals involved in vehicular homicide cases. The agency which administers the BA program is the Department of the State Toxicologist. This agency is affiliated with the University of Washington and Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA. The breath testing machine utilized is the Smith & Wesson Breathalyzer. The method used for determining the BAL on submitted blood samples is gas chromatography.


AGE DETERMINATION OF UNIDENTIFIED PERSONS BY MEANS OF THE SKELETAL STRUCTURES
JUDY MYERS SUCHEY, Ph. D., Department of Chief Medical Examiner-Coroner, County of Los Angeles, California and Department of Anthropology, California State University, Fullerton, California, DEAN V. WISELEY, M. D., THOMAS T. NOGUCHI, M. D., Department of Chief Medical Examiner-Coroner, County of Los Angeles, California, 93003

Skeletal age research on an extensive sample of modern Americans has yielded valuable data for the aging of unidentified persons from fifteen to forty years. This paper focuses on the timing of epiphyseal union of the medical clavicle and the anterior iliac crest and the morphological age changes in the pubis. A variety of cases are used to illustrate the use of these techniques. These techniques are useful when the body is well preserved as well as burned, decomposed, mutilated, or skeletonized.


PHYSICAL MATCH THEORY
LUCIEN C. HAAG, Phoenix P.D. Lab. AZ

"The terms physical match, fracture match and complimentary fit have been used by various authors of forensic science and criminalistics texts usually without definition and without treating them as a type of comparative analysis unto itself. The examples of physical matches are most often restricted to sections pertaining to burglary or hit and run evidence and are used to illustrate the capability of establishing an identity of source through a physical match. This paper presents a broader treatment of the subject to include a comprehensive definition of a physical match/a classification system for three (3) categories of physical matches and describes various techniques for establishing the relationship between the questioned and known specimens.


CURRENT STATUS OF BITE MARK ANALYSIS IN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION
GERALD L. VALE, D.D.S., M.D.S., J.D., Chief Medical Examiner-Coroner's Office, County of Los Angeles, CA 90033

Bite mark evidence has been a legally accepted form of physical evidence since the 1975 decision in People v. Marx. Since that time, bite marks and bite mark methodology have been used as evidence in numerous criminal cases, including the Theodore Frank case and the Hillside and Freeway Strangler cases. Currently utilized methods for collecting and analyzing the evidence from victim and suspect will be presented. These methods will be illustrated by material from recent rape, murder and child abuse cases. Current research involving experimental animals will also be described.


ACID PHOSPHATASE STABILITY IN DRIED SEMEN STAINS IS A FUNCTION OF STAIN "DRYNESS."
G.F. SENSABAUGH, D. Crim.*, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA; E.T. BLAKE, D.Crim., Forensic Science Associates, Emeryville, CA; J. BASHINSKI, M.Crim., Criminalistics Section, Oakland Police Dept., Oakland. CA

The survival of proteins in dried stain material is a function of several variables including temperature, light exposure, and the residual hydration of the stain. This work demonstrates the importance of residual hydration on the survival of acid phosphatase activity in "dried" semen stains. Acid phosphatase inactivation rates decrease sharply as the residual hydration of stains is reduced. Very dry semen stains (in which the dryness is maintained by a dessicant) suffer virtually no loss of acid phosphatase activity even at high temperatures (up to 70°C). Other enzymes in semen and blood stains show this same pattern of survival. Surviving longer in very dry stains. Thus degree of dryness is a variable to be considered in planning long term storage of stain material.


THE NON-VAPORIZING, SEPTUMLESS, COLD ON-COLUMN INJECTOR IN CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
BERNHARD M. APON, Erba Instruments Inc, 12015 Slauson Ave, Suite F Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670

It is now generally accepted that vaporizing injection systems commonly used in capillary gas chromatography can change sample composition during its transfer from the syringe to the column. Thermal and catalytic decomposition of sample components inside the vaporization chamber and the discrimination process which takes place inside the syringe needle and the vaporization chamber, contribute to the change of the sample composition. These changes are especially important when dealing with thermolabile compounds or components with a broad range of volatilities. The simplest method to avoid these unwanted effects is to introduce the liquid samples directly into the capillary column. The non-vaporizing, septumless, cold on-column injection system represents therefore an important step ahead in quantitative capillary gas chromatography. It allows non-discriminating, non-destructive and non-contaminating sample transfer from the syringe to the capillary column. This can be achieved only if the design of the injection system eliminates some processes which produce sample loss, discrimination of sample components and injector contamination.


A MODIFIED REACTION MIXTURE FOR INCREASED FORMAZAN PRODUCTION IN ELECTROPHORETIC ZONES OF PGM ACTIVITY
James M. White, Orange County Sheriff-Coroner

The reaction mixture for PGM described by Spencer et al is modified by the addition of 1.2 international units/plate of 6-Phosphogluconatedehydrogenase(type IV, Sigma).

The principle of this enhancement is to introduce a second auxiliary enzyme to act on the reaction product of the first auxiliary enzyme. In this case the substrate for the secondary enzyme is the 6-phosphogluconate produced by the action of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase on the glucose-6-phosphate produced by PGM. This initiates a second NADP→NADPH for each initial Glucose-1-PO4→ Glucose-6-PO4. This results in a greater formazan production from a given level of PGM activity in a gel.

This modification does not alter the specificity of the, reaction. Color development will take place only at sites of the substrate for this secondary enzyme which is the 6-PG resulting from the action of the G6PDH on the PGM reaction product.


IMPROVED SENSITIVITY AND LOWERED COST IN THE SUB-TYPING OF PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE (PGM1) BY THIN-LAYER ISO-ELECTRIC FOCUSING
James M. White, Orange County, "Sheriff-Coroner; Ron Linhart, Los Angeles Sheriff's Department; Keith Petersen Inman, Los Angeles Sheriff ' s Department

Recent literature in isoelectric focusing has demonstrated that thin (120-500 micron) and ultra thin (50-100 micron)* gels give increased sensitivity and resolution with decreased run time and heat production in many applications. This approach had been adapted for routine subtyping of PGM. Rubber gasketing of nominal 1/64" (450 micron) thickness was chosen as a spacer for thin gels as it could be filled with the gelling mixture by conventional techniques without modification.

Initial experience with these thin gels has resulted in increased sensitivity and subjectively, comparable or perhaps better resolution.

*The dividing line in this field seems to be 120 which is the nominal thickness of Parafilm.


COMPARISON OF SECONDARY ELECTRON, ATOMIC NUMBER CONTRAST AND LOR LOSS BACKSCATTER IMAGES IN THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
DANIEL M. BAXTER. Science Applications Inc., La Jolla, CA 92038

Identical sample area comparisons between standard secondary electron detectors, atomic number backscatter and low loss back-scatter detectors provide insight into the various applications and limitations of SEM image analysis. Micrographs taken, using a dual quartz light pipe backscatter detector, resolve the differences between surface features, elemental contrast and material density. Low loss image analysis reveals surface detail not visible with conventional SEM detectors, where as atomic number contrast provides elemental differentiation by brightness and material density. Forensic applications for each mode of detection range from gunshot residue analysis and toot markings to biological samples. The ability to simultaneously view a sample in all three modes of detection is indispensible in evaluation of most material surfaces.


INDIRECT BLOOD TYPING OF A VICTIM'S BLOOD USING PATERNITY TESTING
CRAIG OGINO, B.S. and DANIEL J. GREGONIS, B.S., Criminalistics Laboratory, San Bernardino County Sheriff's Department, San Bernardino, CA 92415

A man was reported missing by his family. A suspect, driving the victim's vehicle, was arrested for suspicion of murder.

Witnesses stated that the suspect had washed the interior of the vehicle with soap and water.

Luminol, sprayed inside the vehicle, showed a large luminescent area on the driver's seat and along the motor housing.

A bloodstain found on the motor housing was typed as ABO blood type "0", EAP B, ADA 1-1, and AK 1-1. Another bloodstain found on a CB radio from the vehicle was typed as ABO blood type "0", EsD 1-1, PgM 1-1, EAP B, ADA 1-1, AK 1-1 and Hp 1-1. The types found in this bloodstain will occur in 1.1% of the general population.

Blood samples were obtained from the victim's mother, father, wife and son. The types found in the bloodstain were consistent with the victim being the missing family member, and would be the result of 15% of the random matings of the general population.