56th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Fall 1980)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
November 6-8, 1980
Yosemite National Park, California
THE I.R. 3000; A NEW QUANTITATIVE BREATH TESTING AND COLLECTION INSTRUMENT
Lucien Haag, D. Hutson, Susan Narveson, City of Phoenix Police Department, Arizona
In light of court decisions in 1979 and legal trends, the Phoenix Police Crime Laboratory is presently evaluating a new, highly automated quantitative breath testing instrument, the Intoximeter 3000.
The tamper-proof design and documentation of test results together with the instrument's ability to collect and preserve the actual breath-alcohol sample analyzed by the operator makes this instrument an attractive possibility for future DWI testing programs.
The precision, accuracy and linearity of this double beam infrared instrument were evaluated with standard simulator solutions over the .00 to 40% BAC range. The adequacy of the instrument's design to assure the sampling and collection of alveolar breath specimens was studied with human subjects.
DIVIDED ATTENTION LOSS AS AN INDICATOR OF IMPAIRED DRIVING
Glenn Lightfoot, San Bernardino County Sheriff's Office
Test subjects were given alcohol over a two hour period to raise their blood alcohol levels sufficiently to reach 0.06% - 0.l6% at the time of testing. Their loss of divided attention was measured with the use of a videotape of behind-the-wheel driving and a sound track of an AM radio broadcast. The performance of test subjects was measured in an alcohol-free state and at various blood alcohol concentrations. Test results were further checked with a non-drinking control group. Blood alcohol levels were obtained through blood and breath analysis. All test subjects showed a decrease in their ability to simultaneously monitor familiar audio and visual stimuli.
IDENTIFICATION OF IBUPROFEN BY MP, IR. NMR. AMD GC/MS
Ralph Maloney, Forensic Science Group, University of California, Berkeley; David Chia, U.S. Customs Division, San Francisco
A number of tablets with the logo "Brufen" were detained by Customs Officers and sent to the Customs Laboratory in San Francisco for analysis. The tablets were analyzed by various forms of instrumental analysis. The data obtained during this analysis were not found to match any of the standard reference data in any of the standard reference works. The data from the analyses show that the primary component of these tablets is Ibuprofen. Confirmation was facilitated by identifying the ion fragments generated by the GC/MS analysis, then confirming these results with melting point, IR and NMR spectroscopy, and a comparison to a reference standard. Analytical data are included on a handout which will be distributed.
ANATOMY OF AN AMPHETAMINE LAB
Fred Tulleners, California Department of Justice, Riverside Laboratory
The operation and synthetic techniques of an illicit amphetamine lab will be described. This lab located in a remote desert area, may have been one of the largest clandestine amphetamine labs ever uncovered.
The manufacture of amphetamine was via the phenylacetic acid route. The lab was designed in three functional areas: a. synthetic preparation, b. storage/workshop area, and c. salting out area. The synthetic area with its high value equipment was capable of rapid off site deployment.
A LOW-COST TECHNICAL INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM
John DeHaan, California Department of Justice, Sacramento Laboratory
There was a need for an effective means of storing, indexing, and retrieving technical reference materials from a library of several thousand entries.
Existing files are being converted to l6mm microfilm for convenience of storage and a copy is archivally stored for protection against loss. Articles are encoded with key-work-in-context descriptors and are cataloged on edge-punch data cards. The resulting card files can be manually searched and articles can be retrieved by means of the microfilm address assigned to each.
Preliminary trials with the limited files converted indicate the system is convenient and reasonably efficient.
Although the system is completely non-automated, it provides convenient access to a large library of data requiring only minimal operating costs.
BULLET DATA FILE
Frances Evans, California Department of Justice, Redding Laboratory
A bullet file is described which allows manual search for manufacturer, caliber, and chamber information from measurements made on evidence bullets or fragments. The current file contains information on over 30 manufacturers and includes 60 cartridge chamber designations. No information on .22 caliber or other rim fire cartridges is presently included in the file
A KINETIC STUDY OF THE REACTION OF NIMHYDRIN WITH AMPHETAMINE AND METHAMPHETAMIME
Beth Hendrickson, John Thornton, and Ralph Maloney, Forensic Science Group, University of California, Berkeley
The expected reaction product of both primary and secondary amines with ninhydrin is Rhuemann's purple. However, many phenethylamines exhibit a high degree of infra-class color specificity. The reaction rates of two phenethylamines with ninhydrin were studied, amphetamine as typical of primary phenethylamines of abuse and methamphetamine as typical of secondary phenethylamines. Both amphetamine and methamphetamine follow first order reaction equations. Contrary to what would be expected, however, the secondary amine has a faster reaction rate than the primary amine. This is in accord with the greater sensitivity of secondary amines, e.g., methamphetamine and STP with the ninhydrin reagent.
A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR THE COLLECTIONS OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE BODIES OF HOMICIDE VICTIMS
Faye Springer, California Department of Justice, Riverside Laboratory
A protocol to evidence collection from homicide victims will be presented. Emphasized will be the collection of trace evidence and physiological specimens from the nude victim. Use of this evidence in giving investigative information to law enforcement will be discussed.
DETECTION OF RESIDUE MS/VAPORS IN A SIMULATED DRUG LAB FIRE
Louis Maucieri, John Bowden, California Department of Justice, Sacramento Laboratory
Problem under Investigation: Can piperidine, cyclohexanone and bromobenzene be detected after a simulated PCP lab fire?
Methods Used: GC/MS
Results: Positive indications on (a) debris headspace and distillate; (b) clothes worn; and (c) collected vapors from scene.
Conclusions: Vapors can be field collected using charcoal tubes as a preconcentration method. Clothing of subjects associated with clandestine labs or arson scenes may be a potential source of chemical evidence.
APPLICATION OF PATERNITY TESTING TO AN UNUSUAL HOMICIDE CASE
Margaret Kuo, Orange County Sheriff/Coroner
A suspect was charged with the murder of a woman whose body was never found.
Stain on victim's underpants established her as type B. Blood stain found on the defendant's boat seat was typed as ABO-B, AK 2-1, ADA 1, PGM 2-1, EAP-A, and Hp 2-1. It can be calculated that the incidence of the person who bled on the boat being an offspring of random mating is approximately 0.8% in the general population. Blood samples obtained from the victim's parents indicate that they are not eliminated as the natural parents of the person who bled.
The defendant was convicted of first degree murder.
RATES OF DRYING OF VAGINAL SWABS; AN UPDATE
George Sensabaugh, University of California, Berkeley; Jan Bashinski, Oakland Police Department, Criminalistics Laboratory; Ed Blake, Forensic Science Associates, Emeryville
It appears that much of the degradation affecting semen markers on vaginal swabs occurs while the swab is still wet. Previous studies have demonstrated that the major determinant in the drying process is the air flow around the swab. These studies suggest that there may be substantial degradation in some of the semen markers if swabs are placed in tubes before they are thoroughly dry. Studies of post-coital swabs treated under different storage conditions tends to support the hypothesis that swab dryness prior to placement in tubes is a key determinant in the survival of some of the enzyme genetic markers.
LEVELS OF GENETIC MARKERS IN VAGINAL FLUIDS
Ed Blake, Forensic Science Associates, Emeryville; George Sensabaugh, University of California, Berkeley; Jan Bashinski, Oakland Police Department, Criminalistics Laboratory
Levels of several genetic markers in the vaginal fluids of normal females have been determined. The genetic markers studied include the soluble ABH antigens, the ABO isoagglutinins, PGM enzyme activity, Pep A enzyme activity, and Acid Phosphatase activity. This quantitative information is useful in the interpretation of genetic typing analyses of rape evidence material.
A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF SEMEN EVIDENCE
Ed Blake, Forensic Science Associates, Emeryville; George Sensabaugh, University of California, Berkeley; Jan Bashinski, Oakland Police Department, Criminalistics Laboratory
Knowledge of the quantitative levels of acid phosphatase, phosphoglucomutase, peptidase A, and ABO antigens in semen and knowledge of their stability in rape evidence material has allowed the development of a systematic scheme for the analysis of rape kit evidence. This scheme is predicated on using the quantitative acid phosphatase test as an index of the amount of semen present in the evidence material. A flow diagram will be presented accompanied by details of each analytical step in the scheme.
A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF SEMEN EVIDENCE - CASE REPORTS
Mary Gibbons, Forensic Science Associates, Emeryville; Ed Blake, Forensic Science Associates, Emeryville; George Sensabaugh, University of California, Berkeley; Jan Bashinski, Oakland Police Department, Criminalistics Laboratory
A few cases are presented which illustrate the use of a systematic scheme for the analysis of rape kit evidence.
SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF GAPSAIGINOIDS IN TEAR GAS DEVICES
Beth Hendrickson, John Thornton, Grady Goldman, and Ronald Miller, Forensic Science Group, University of California, Berkeley
In California and in other jurisdictions it is illegal to possess a "tear gas" device which has as its active substance the oleoresin of capsicum. Oleoresin of capsicum is an ether, acetone, or alcohol extract of the dried fruit from the Capsicum annum family. Methods described in the literature for the identification of this material are wholly inadequate from a forensic standpoint. Gapsaicin, the active principal, may be analyzed along with its carotenoid pigment capsanthin using an ether-alkali extraction and thin-layer chromatography. Analytical data will be presented in a handout describing the extraction and the chromatography.
THE EVALUATION OF AN ALIBI THROUGH THE EXAMINATION OF RELATIVE FIRING PIN IMPRESSION DEPTHS
John E. Murdock, Stephen Ojena, Contra Costa County Sheriff's Office
The suspect in a death case said that she pulled back the hammer on a model 64 Winchester lever action rifle and that it accidently slipped out from under her thumb, causing the fatal discharge.
A cast was made of the firing pin impression depth in the fatal cartridge. This depth was compared with casts of a series of test firing pin impressions. A comparison of the depth of the fatal firing pin impression with the test casts clearly demonstrated that the hammer fell not from in front of the half cock notch, but back from a full cock position, assuming that the trigger was not being manipulated simultaneously.
THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE FBI LABORATORY WITH STATE AND LOCAL LABORATORY SYSTEMS
James Greenleaf, Assistant Director, FBI Laboratory, Washington, D.C.
The role of the FBI Laboratory in providing forensic services to state and local law enforcement as well as state and local laboratories will be changing in the next few years. Today there is greater emphasis on reducing the amount of Federal support to the state and local community. The FBI Laboratory has had to re-assess its position with respect to providing forensic services to the state and local law enforcement community. There will be a gradual reduction of forensic support with a greater emphasis on training laboratory personnel from the various state and local laboratories throughout the country. This period of transition will be difficult and it will be incumbent upon all concerned that the best possible service be provided in the interests of meeting the needs of the criminal justice system. The FBI is currently constructing the new Forensic Science Research and Training facility at the FBI Academy, Quantico, Virginia, which is indicative of the greater emphasis the FBI Laboratory will place on training.
IDENTIFICATION OF LSD BY GLC-MS
Frederick Steinhauer, Drug Enforcement Administration, San Francisco
Identification of LSD can be accomplished by formation of a trimethylsilyl derivative and injection of the sample directly into a GLC-MS. This method is less time-consuming than methods requiring extensive purification steps.
ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY ANALYSIS OF LEAD FROM DISTILLED GASOLINE RESIDUES
Gary Gortner, Mark Kalchik, California Department of Justice, Fresno Laboratory
Direct distillation of leaded and unleaded gasoline samples utilizing water distillation will be discussed along with lead recovery comparisons made between fresh gasoline and burned or weathered gasoline.
Also to be discussed is the storage and retrieval of arson case data from computer memory systems.
A STUDY OF THE UNIFORMITY OF MICROSCOPE COVER GLASSES
John Thornton, Beth Hendrickson, and Carol Harralson, Forensic Science Group, University of California, Berkeley
American and British microscope manufacturers assume a cover glass thickness of 0.180 mm, while European manufacturers assume a thickness of 0.170 mm. Unfortunately, neither of these assumed thicknesses is a target value of the manufacturers of cover glass. As a compromise, #1-1/2 cover slips have a target thickness of 0.175 mm, but with an acknowledged range of 0.160 to 0.190 mm. Using a star plate criterion, the range of acceptability is 0.175 - 0.003 mm. Outside of this range, image deterioration will occur. A random sample of 370 #1-1/2 cover slips from a variety of major manufacturers was collected and measured by means of a micrometer. Approximately 60% of the cover glasses examined did not fall within the acceptable range. The data will be presented in the form of a handout.
PRINCIPLE MINERAL CONSTITUENTS OF SAN JOAQUIM VALLEY FLOOR SOILS
Stephen Shatter, Fresno County Sheriff's Office
Casework examinations of Fresno County soils indicate that color and density comparisons provide insufficient discrimination for these soils. The heavy minerals ignored in conventional density gradient procedures represent a potential extension of this discrimination ability. The author has begun a study of these soils to determine the value of heavy minerals in discriminating these soils. Quantitative optical mineralogy is used in this study. The initial phase of the study, reported here, has been the isolation and identification of the predominant minerals contained within the seals. The identifying characteristics of these minerals necessary for rapid recognition are described and illustrated.
STATUS REPORT ON CONTRA COSTA COUNTY ARSON GRANT
Grady Goldman, Contra Costa County Sheriff's Office
Microprocessors have come into play in all areas of instrumental analysis. Arson evidence has long been examined by gas chromatography and no real changes in column temperature or conditions have been made here. This presentation deals with some new search techniques for searching chromatograms against a library of standard accelerant compounds including blind trials as well as the adoption of short fused silica capillary column analysis of headspace.
The instrument used is a Hewlett Packard 5880A Gas Chromatograph with Basic Language programming. The programs will be made available to those interested. Also future plans for research in progress with this equipment as well as the CDS (Chemical Data Systems) arson concentration unit will be discussed.
REGENT BULLET-LEAD CASE STUDIES
Vincent Guinn, University of California, Irvine
At U.C. Irvine, considerable research has been carried out during the last few years on the characterization of origin of bullet leads and shotgun pellets via their concentrations of Sb, Ag, and Cu. An effective rapid screening method has been developed, in which even very tiny specimens are nondestructively analyzed for these three key elements, in only a few minutes per sample, via neutron activation analysis (NAA). These techniques have been usefully applied to a number of interesting criminal cases, including some very well known cases. Certain of these recent cases will be described.
PEPTIDASE-A PHENOTYPING BY AGAROSE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
Rodney Andrus, California Department of Justice, Fresno Laboratory
The procedure to be presented is the culmination of an evaluation of previously reported methods for Pep A phenotyping. The system utilizes agarose gel as the support medium and requires as little as one hour and 45 minutes of electrophoresis. Subsequent development of the isozyme patterns is effected in less than 45 minutes.
A preliminary report of the systems use in hair root sheath phenotype, for Pep A will also be presented.
TECHNICAL NOTE; FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE SUB-TYPING OF PGM BY CARBON ROD ISO-ELECTRIC FOCUSING
James White, Orange County Sheriff/Coroner
Problem: Initial experiments with iso-electric focusing using carbon rod electrodes gave good separations. Problems were then encountered with gradient drift.
Method & Conclusion: Switching from CyanogumR to acrylamide and bis-acrylamide from Sigma reduced this drift considerably.
Experiments with PharalyteR (in place of Ampho-line R) carrier ampholytes of pH range 4-6.5 also gave good results. PharmalyteR ampholytes have added to them small amounts of broad range ampholytes. This results in hemoglobin focusing on the gel rather than running off. This allows the run to be monitored and revealed a slight gradient drift in the Sigma acrylamide after two hours of focusing. Pre-treatment of the acrylamide stock solution with 1% wt/vol. AmberliteR MB-1 (Sigma A7393) tor 20 minutes on a magnetic stirrer greatly reduced this drift. The PharmalyteR ampholytes appear to require Ammonuim Persulfate for acrylamide polymerization rather than traditionally used riboflavin, which produced gummy gels.
THE EXAMINATION OF HEADLIGHT FILAMENTS: A PRECAUTION
Robert J. Ogle, Jr., and Peter D. Barnett, Forensic Science Associates, Emeryville
Metallic Barium is used in incandescent light bulbs to scavenge traces of oxygen from the bulb. The gray metallic Barium turns white as it reacts with Oxygen. The white Barium Oxide has an appearance similar to Tungsten Oxide and might be confused, in some cases, with Tungsten Oxide produced when the bulb is broken with the filament incandescent. The Barium and Tungsten Oxides can be readily distinguished using elemental analysis (XRF, SEM/EDX, etc.) or polarized light microscopy.
THE USE OF METAL DETECTORS IN CRIME SCENE SEARCHING
Torrey Johnson, California Department of Justice, Sacramento Laboratory
Electronic metal detectors can be used to great advantage on many crime scenes. There are several basic types of metal detectors which can be used. Each type has certain advantages and disadvantages. It is important to choose the type of detector which suits your needs.
The success of a metal detector search depends on several factors, including the type of detector, terrain, size and type of target, and the skill of the operator. These factors need to be understood by perspective metal detector operators.
Metal detector companies now offer a number of accessories. Some of these accessories should prove useful in crime scene work.
THE ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS BY REVERSE-PHASE HPLC
Lucien Haag, City of Phoenix Police Department, Arizona
The further characterization of smokeless propellants from commercial and military small arms ammunition and canister powders beyond the usual class characteristic measures of color, shape, dimensions, textural features and basic chemical composition would be highly desirable in cases involving this type of evidence. Since variations in the nature and quantity of various organic additives incorporated in propellants by the manufacturer have been previously reported and a variety of degradation products are known to appear in smokeless powders with the passage of time, a sensitive means of characterizing and comparing propellant samples on the basis of these minor constituents could extend the strength of the criminalist's comparison or allow for the discrimination of otherwise indistinguishable samples.
A Beckman-Altex high performance gradient liquid chromatograph using a reverse-phase column and a variable wavelength U.V. detector coupled to an integrating recorder was used to characterize methylene chloride extracts of various fresh and aged propellant samples.
Different lots of the same powder, aged samples of a single lot of propellant and samples that could not be distinguished on the basis of physical properties were all capable of being discriminated with this technique.