53rd SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Spring 1979)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
MAY 10-12, 1979
SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA
SOLUBILITY CHARACTERIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE PAINTS
John I. Thornton, Shmuel Kraus** and Bruce Lerne, U. C. Berkeley, **Chief Superintendent, Analytical Section, Israel Police Crime Lab, Jerusalem, Israel
Automobiles manufactured in the United States in the past several years have been finished with acrylic lacquers or acrylic enamels. The acrylic lacquers are primarily composed of long straight chains of metacrylate, while the acrylic enamels are cross linked in various manners. In the solvent thinned or organic dispersed enamels, the cross-linking is achieved with butylated melamine formaldehyde. In the case of the water dispersed enamels the cross-linking is achieved with hexameth-oxy methyl melamine. The following solubility tests will distinguish three types of paints. A small amount of paint is placed in a porcelain spot plate. Glacial acetic acid at room temperature is added. If the paint is an acrylic lacquer, it will dissolve in two minutes. If the paint does not dissolve, heat the spot plate with an IR lamp. When the temperature is within 10° of the boiling point of glacial acetic acid (117°C), the paint will dissolve within two minutes if the paint is an organic dispersed enamel. If no reaction occurs, remove the acetic acid by either a pipet or evaporation and add a few drops of cone. HNO3 and reheat for 3 minutes. The function of the HNO3 is to break the cross-linkages. The sample is then washed in distilled water and dried. A saturated solution of KOH in t-butano1 is then added and the solution heated. The water dispersed enamels will dissolve.
THE CORRELATION OF DENSITY AND REFRACTIVE INDEX IN GLASS FORENSIC CONSIDERATIONS
David A. Stoney and John I. Thornton
Although the strong correlation between density and refractive index in glass has been noted by forensic scientists, the causes of this correlation have not been considered in detail, nor have the implications of this correlation to the interpretation of glass evidence been examined carefully. Two divergent points of view exist. One point of view, appearing in the more recent literature, is that because of this correlation, once property is measured, little additional information is obtained by measuring the other. The other point of view is that there is sufficient deviation from direct correlation to make both properties useful for individualization. The present authors support this latter view, although for different reasons, and stress the distinction between individualization and discriminating power. Individualization will be limited by analytical precision and ultimately by within-item variation. When density is plotted against refractive index, the ranges of the properties with an item define a set of values appearing as a rectangular area. When this region is narrowed, discriminations are improved and the likelihood of an unrelated correspondence in properties is decreased. If the causes of within-item variation are considered, this rectangular regional is narrowed considerably, and with rather profound implications to the interpretation of glass evidence. Physical properties in glass are determined by two factors: chemical composition and heat treatment. With an item density and refractive index are affected proportionately by each factor, and, although the constants of proportionality differ for individual chemical constituents and the particular glass system, a general proportionality is conserved. Within the ranges of permissible values, as described by the rectangular region, only those values of density and refractive index which follow this proportionality are consistent with samples of glass originating from a common source. The overall population correlation is but an extension of this, with both quantitative and qualitative differences being noted.
AN APPARENTLY UNUSUAL PHENOTYPE OF RED CELL ACID PHOSPHATASE A REPORT OF TWO CASES
J. W. White and M. Graves, Orange County Sheriff's Department
Two unrelated cases are reported in which a fresh blood lysate gave an electrophoretic pattern similar to a normal CA type hut in which the B isozyme was absent. The brother of one of these individuals gave a type CB pattern, while the father of the second gave a type A pattern. Each individual has a Spanish surname. No other family studies were done.
HAPTOGLOBIN TYPING BY GRADIENT AND NON-GRADIENT POLYCRYLMIDE - GEL ELECTROPIIORESIS
Ronald E. Linhart, Los Angeles Sheriff's Department
Haptoglobin typing on horizontal, non-gradient polyacrylamide gel has been developed as a part of the recent LEAA funded Bloodstain Analysis System. A comparison of this method to a modification of the polyacrylamide gradient gel technique as described by Culliford was undertaken. Stains were prepared from fresh whole bloods of Types 1, 2, and 2-1 on four different substrates and examined by both methods over a period of 16 weeks.
Additional variables examined were 0-tolidine vs. 0-dianisidine staining and one hour vs. overnight extraction.
Although both techniques proved satisfactory, based upon data generated in this study, polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis with o-tolidine staining is now being used in this laboratory for haptoglobin typing.
CHEWING GUM ANALYSIS BY PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
Frank Cassidy, DJO Regional Lab - Santa Barbara
Pyrolysis gas chromatography is one method that can be utilized to analyze chewing gums and distinguish certain class characteristics. This is a preliminary report on the evaluation of various types and flavors from three manufacturers. Sample preparation analysis parameters and results will be discussed. Additional work is planned of other types of manufacturers.
SEQUENTIALLY MANUFACTURED CHANNEL-LOCK PLIERS
Frank Cassidy, DOJ Santa Barbara Regional Lab
Four sets of sequentially manufactured channel-lock pliers were evaluated for class and individual characteristics. Manufacturing operations do produce individual characteristics which may be identifiable.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS RAISED CONCERNING THE APPLICATIONS OF COSMETIC ANALYSIS TO FORENSIC SITUATIONS
Dr. Victor II. Baptists, Max Factor Corporation
Attempts will be made to answer the questions which become of concern when considering the analysis of cosmetics or cosmetic residues in forensic situations. Attention win be given to classes of compounds, separation techniques, references, possible manufacturer discriminations and similar areas of interests.
PROBLEMS IN THE USE OF AMYLASE PHENOTYPING IN SEXUAL ASSAULT EVIDENCE
Keith E. Peterson Inman, Los Angeles Sheriff's Department and James M. White, Orange County Sheriff's Department
The detection of saliva in physical evidence from sexual assault cases is occasionally of some importance. Corroboration of a victim's story may be possible regarding oral copulation, while the documented changes of seminal PGM in the presence of saliva also makes it desirable to detect the presence of saliva. A semi-quantitative test for α-amylase has been the traditional method for detecting saliva. The enzyme, however, has two genetic loci, and fluids can he classified according to the genetic origin of the α-amylase present. An electrophoretic procedure, previously described by Blake, allows the convenient classification of the α-amylase. The application of this technique to case materials will be presented.
* Blake, T. T. & Sensabaugh, G. F. "Differential Expression of Amylase Loci in Human Body Fluids and Secretions" 46th Semi-Annual Seminar, CAC, October, 1975.
THE FORENSIC EXAMINATION OF FECES
Keith E. Peterson Inman, Los Angeles Sheriff's Department
Feces is seen only occasionally in forensic casework, and more often than not is written off as an item not worthy of examination. Morphology, color, odor and some test for bilirubin breakdown products have been traditional parameters for the identification of fecal material. A search of the clinical literature has yielded valuable information leading to a scheme for examining feces in the forensic context. Demonstration of the presence of human IgA, alkaline phosphatase, and α-amylase (Amy2) are proposed as additional criteria for concluding the presence of fecal material. Human IgA is determined by using specific anti-human IgA in double diffusion experiments against extracts of the material. Alkaline phosphatase and α-amylase are determined on acrylamide gels using well established methods. A theoretical basis win be established for the use of these tests and actual application to case material win be presented.
EFFECTS OF VALIUM ON DRIVING BEHAVIOR
Linda Edwards, Phoenix, Arizona
According to contemporary statistical studies, valium has been found to be one of the most frequently abused drugs in the United States. Due to its tremendous popularity, Valium has become a problem of considerable concern for law enforcement because its appearance in the blood of DWI drivers has become all too frequent. This study is exploratory in nature and seeks to determine if research concerning the possible correlation between diazepam levels and driving impairment is warranted. To this end a double blind experiment was carried out using 17 subjects who were given 10mg and 20mg doses of valium and whose ability to perform various skill tests including maneuvering a vehicle on an obstacle course were evaluated before and after medication.
TESTING FOR SEDATIVE-HYNOTIC DRUGS IN THE IMPAIRED DRIVER: A SURVEY OF 75,000 ARRESTS
James M. White, G. C. Brouillette, D. 0. Clardy, M. H. Graves, M. C. Kuo, B. J.; MacDonald, D. S. Pearce, S. J. Wiersema: Orange County Sheriff/Coroner
In 1973, the Orange County Sheriff/Coroner Criminalistics Laboratory began a compre-hensive program of testing all blood samples received on driving arrests in which the ethanol level was below 0.10% for a panel of sedative-hypnotic drugs. Each year approximately 12% of the arrests met the criterion for drug screening. Drug positive cases were 282 of 723 in 1973, 520 of 1191 in 1974, 639 of 1374 in 1975, 585 of 1316 in 1976 and 570 of 1693 in 1977.
In 1973 barbiturates alone contributed 70% of the drug positive findings, while by 1977 barbiturates alone comprised only 44% of the positive cases. Methaqualone, on the other hand, has risen to 33% of the drug positive findings in 1977 from 8% in 1973. Recent advances in RIA have allowed more rapid screening for barbiturates. Identification of the sedative-hypnotic drugs is by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and a combination of paper, thin layer and gas chromatography.
POSSIBLE ERRORS IN HEMOGLOBIN PHENOTYPING IN BLOODSTAINS
B. W. Grunbaum, U. C. Berkeley
Observations were made on changes after electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes in the mobility of hemoglobin from bloodstains one to 28 days old. A procedure has been worked out to prevent these changes which may cause errors in the pheno-typing of hemoglobin variants.
This research was financially assisted through a federal grant from the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) and the California Office of Criminal Justice Planning (OCJP).
RARE GC VARIANTS IN ROUTINE CASE WORK
Patricia Zajac, Alameda County Sheriff's Department
A report describing detection and the patterns observed in examining stain materials for the Gc marker.
PROCEDURES FOR COORDINATING AN ARSON CRIME SCENE CLASS
R. J. Davis and W. V. Corazza, DOJ Santa Rosa
- Preliminary Considerations - This segment of the presentation will consider the legal
requirements necessary for conducting an arson crime scene class. Acquiring the necessary government permits and insurance waivers, coordinating local fire department activities and involvement of the DA are discussed.
- Practical Exercise - The planning, preparation and implementation of burning a
structure. Criteria for creating a realistic arson situation, with the use of video tapes as a training aid are described.
EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THE CAPABILITIES OF MICROSCOPE AND MACROPHOTOGRAPHIC OPTICS
Lowell H. Bradford, Consultant
A tutorial presentation of practical methods of determining depth of focus, flatness of field, resolution and other optical properties of interest to practicing criminalists. The achievement of quality in forensic science macrophotography and comparison photomicrography through the use of test objects and special techniques which are easily within the reach of any criminalist will be discussed and illustrated.
DANGEROUS DRUG DISPOSALS: WILL TODAY'S METHODS SATISFY TOMORROW'S STANDARDS?
Bill Davis, San Diego County Sanitation and Flood Control
The legal and practical considerations of dealing with hazardous compounds which may occur as a part of your laboratories routine operation.
EXTREMELY DANAGEROUS MATERIAL HANDLING
Dr. David Storm, California State Department of Health Services
Hazardous Material Management Section
A REVIEW OF METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF PCP AND SEVERAL PCP ANALOGS
Dr. Alice Kruegel, DEA, San Francisco
Methods for screening, identification and quantitation of PCP and four of its analogs. The Thiophene, Ethylamine, Pyrolidine and Ketamine - by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques are reviewed methods used to analyze street and biological samples are described. Analyses of impurities in clandestinely manufactured material and drug metabolites in biological samples have also been included.
A CASE REPORT: POSTMORTEM FINDING OF PHP
George R. Nakaimira, Ernest C. Griesemer, Lawrence E. Joiner and Thomas J. Naguchi Department of Chief Medical Examiner-Coroner, Los Angeles County
Recently this laboratory had an occasion to detect and identify an analog of PCP in postmortem specimens. The substance known has PHP of l-(l-phenylcydophexyl) pyrrolidine was used by a male, 35 years of age who was shot while acting in a bizarre manner and resisting police arrest. Analytical differentiation between PCP and PHP was made possible through GC-mass spectrometry.
THE PCP INTOXICATED DRIVER
D. 0. Clardy, R. H. Cravey, B. J. McDonald, S. J. Wiersema and D. S. Pierce, Office of Sheriff/Coroner - Orange County
Phencylidine was found in the blood of 48 persons arrested for traffic violations. The analyses were conducted with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer by use of selection monitoring. The average age of the phencyclidine intoxicated driver was 21.5 years (range 17 years - 50 years) and the average blood phenyclidine concentration was 71.4 ng/m; (range 10 ng/ml - 167 ng/ml). Both symptoms and blood phencylidine concentrations will be discussed. It was determined from this study that blood phencyclidine concentrations do not correlate well with the physical findings.
PCP RELATED DEATHS - REPORT OF 9 FATAL CASES
Robert H. Cravey and Dwight Reed, Office of Sheriff/Coroner - Orange County
Since 1971, nine fatal cases due to phencyclidine overdoses have been recorded in Orange County. Two of these cases are documented suicides and the others were determined to be accidental overdose cases. In addition, phencyclidine has been found in seven cases in which death was due to other causes. Case histories, pathology and body distribution studies will be presented on each case.
SOLVENT-DEPENDENT PHOTOLYSIS AS A MEANS OF IDENTIFICATION OF LSD AND OTHER INDOLAMINES
David Stoney and John I. Thornton, U. C. Berkeley
When LSD and other indolamines are subjected to ultraviolet irradiation in solution, the number and chemical nature of the photolysis products are dependent upon the particular solvent. The present work attempts to systematically correlate the photolysis products of LSD and other indoles. With solvent, wavelength, irradiation time and a critically determined value for the intensity of the ultraviolet source. The latter is a particularly critical factor, since the actual intensity may deviate substantially from the manufacturer's stated value, and, additionally, it is virtually impossible for one group of workers to verify or reproduce the work of another group without quantitative data concerning the ultraviolet source. In the present work, ferrioxalate actinometry established the intensity of the irradiation time to be 4.3 x 10-7 Finsteins/second or 2.6 x 10 quanta/second. With this flux, at 253.7 nm, an irradiation time of 2 minutes was determined to produce the maximum number of photolysis products with LSD in a chloroform system and in a methanol system, the time producing the maximum number of products was determined to be 12 minutes.
BULLET RICOCHET FROM WATER
Lucien C. Haag, Phoenix Police Crime Lab
For a given bullet there is a critical angle of incidence below which the projectiles will ricochet from the surface of water rather than penetrate it. The observation that bullets striking water at low incident angles ricochet with an angle greater than the incident angle was first reported by Haag in the December 1975 AFTE Journal Vol. 7 No. 3. Little supportive evidence was offered at that time for this rather startling claim. The critical
ricochet characteristics of bullets have important implications in cases where it is either claimed or believed that a bullet may have ricocheted off water before striking an object or person. This paper will describe the experimental design and evaluation of contributing para-meters of several representative cartridge and bullet types.
PATTERNS OF CHILD ABUSE INJURIES
Dr. Frank Raasch
(No abstract available)
BITE MARK EVIDENCE AND PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION
Dr. Norman Sperber, Forensic Odontologist
Bite mark evidence in homicide, sex and child abuse cases has become an important recent investigative instrument in the identification of suspects. Such evidence has been accepted in several California Superior Court cases and one military case within the last five years. This discussion and slide presentation will review the evidence in two child abuse cases, one a severe burning in which the victim survived and the other a homicide involving a skull fracture. The lecturer has testified in both cases and convictions were obtained. In addition, a short audio-visual tape on bite mark evidence encountered during field investigations, produced by the San Diego Police Department win be presented.
SEPTEMBER, 1978 - SAN DIEGO AIR DISASTER: RESPONSE CONSIDERATIONS - PANEL DISCUSSION FORMAT
CHAIR: David Stark - Coroner, San Diego County; Dr. Francis Luibel - Pathologist; Dr. Norman Sperber - Forensic Odontologist; Richard Shaw - Chief Toxicologist, San Diego County
Panel discussion concerning identifying the community resources available for disaster situation response, identifying the agencies which should participate in a large scale Coroner's investigations, identifying the expertise available and identifying the decisions and selection criteria to be satisfied prior to confronting the problems of actual disaster response.