54th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Fall 1979)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
OCTOBER 18-20, 1979
OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA

CONCURRENT TYPING OF Gc AND Tf ON AGAROSE. GELS
Edward T. Blake; Forensic Science Associates, Emeryville, CA. 94608

Genetic variation of human transferrin has been known for over twenty years: during that time more than eighteen transferrin variants have been discovered. The most common variant phenotype, CD occurs in approximately 10% of the Black population; thus, transferrin is a potentially useful genetic marker for typing bloodstain evidence. This paper describes a method for typing transferrin in bloodstains using methods that are currently employed by many laboratories for typing Gc. Since there is 15 times more transferrin than Gc in whole blood and since transferrin appears to be more stable than Gc, transferrin typing is often possible even when the Gc system fails.


THE OAKLAND SHROUD: A NOVEL CASE UTILIZING THE LUMINOL REAGENT
Marty Blake, Jan Bashinski; Oakland Police Department Crime Lab, 455 7th Street, Oakland, CA. 94607

The luminol and o-tolidine reagents were applied, under unusual circumstances with dramatic results.


REFRACTIVE INDEX AND DISPERSION OF GLASS
Jerry Chisum and Tom Valentine; California DOJ, Modes to, CA.

A simple, rapid method to measure refractive index and dispersion using the Mettler hot stage, an interference wedge, interference filters and silicon oil. Accuracy and precision are better than ? .0005 for refractive index.


MICROCHEM1CAL TESTING OF COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS
Skip Palenik; McCrone Institute

Even with the advent and availability of sophisticated and expensive analytical instruments microchemical reactions remain an indispensible part of the microscopist's arsenal. By means of suitable technique almost any reaction (or a modification thereof) can be scaled down and performed under a microscope or so that it will give chemical information about microscopic objects. Drawing from classical microcrystal reactions through spot tests, fusion methods, catalytic reactions and histochemical methods examples of the microchemical identification of a variety of materials will be illustrated.


HUMAN HAIR COMPARISONS: A BLIND TRIAL EXPERIMENT
Edward T. Blake and the Northern Biology Study Group

Human hair is one of the half-dozen or so most common evidence types, hair comparison is considered to be one of the classical types of examination performed by the criminalist. Despite the importance and frequency of hair comparisons, there is very little knowledge concerning the significance of finding hairs that are indistinguishable based upon their microscopic morphological characteristics. A number of recent provocative papers by Gaudette have suggested that such a finding is highly significant; that is, if two hairs are microscopically indistinguishable, the probability that they did not originate from the same individual is 1/4500. While many forensic scientists disagree with Gaudette's methodology, statistical treatment, and ultimate conclusions, his statements remain unchallenged in the forensic literature. Not wanting to let this challenge go unanswered, the Northern Biology Study Group has designed a blind trial experiment to test Gaudette's hypotheses. The ultimate goal of the experiment is to determine the error rate in human hair comparisons. This presentation is a preliminary report on the experimental design and problems encountered in setting up the experiment.


A SIMPLE METHOD TO DISTINGUISH PAINT PIGMENTS
Jerry Chisum; California DOJ, Modesto, CA.

A chip of paint is heated to destroy all organics. It is then examined microscopically. Differences in pigments are readily visible.


FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY FROM REPORT TO COURT
Rodger Heolar, Ph.D; State University of San Francisco

The field and expertise of forensic anthropology in briefly explained among with a variety of casework occurring in law enforcement and legal settings. The majority of cases and opinions include missing persons, human identification, and homicide investigation. These requests involve whole, partial, decomposed, and skeletonized remains examined with the format of an "osteo-autopsy". Opinions such as age, sex, stature, body build, race, varieties of change. medical history, and time since death in a specific environment characterize forensic anthropology. The submitted report, attorney/anthropologist conference, trial preparation, and exnert testimony will be discussed in some detail.


A STREAMLINED PROCEDURE FOR HIGH VOLUME GUNSHOT RESIDUE ANALYSIS
Edward Rhodes, Harley Sagara; Los Angeles County. Sheriff's Crime Lab

The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Crime Lab has recently developed a new program for routine gunshot residue analysis. The program is being evaluated on a trial basis in an area with a large number of gang related shootings. The program involves design and production of sample collection kits, officer training and high volume routine analysis. One element of the training program includes a video tape presentation for officers on sample collection techniques.


TRAINING - CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATIONS
Joseph M. Rynearson, California DOJ, Redding, CA; Jerry W. Chisum, California DOJ, Modesto, CA.

The authors have taken a new approach to training crime scene investigators. They incorporate the use of video tape re-enactments and modern teaching theory into their training program. Each student participates in 15 to 20 crime scenes in the one week course.


PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS

A continuing problem facing crime laboratories is the destruction of hazardous chemicals seized from clandestine labs involved in the synthesis of controlled substances, e.g., PCP and methamphetamine. A panel of criminalists and a Department of Health representative will discuss problems encountered with destruction procedures peculiar to their laboratory and with conforming to environmental guidelines in their area.


IMPROVED TECHNIQUE AND MATERIALS FOR OBTAINING TIRE AND SHOE PRINTS
Stephen M. Ojena; Contra Costa County Criminalistics Laboratory

An improved technique for obtaining tire and shoe prints utilizing fingerprint powder and a white pinstic adhesive lifter material is discussed. A number of other applications including the lifting of latent prints and the lifting of gunshot discharge residue from solid surfaces for distance determination are also discussed.


HOMOGENEOUS ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR THC IN URINE
L. A. Reynolds, A. Mann, M. De Laurentis; SYVA Company. Palo Alto, Ca., 94304

Marijuana today is recognized as one of the most widely used drugs due to its ready availability and its popular mood altering effects. The principle active ingredient is known to be Δ9 tetrahy-drocannabinol (THC). In recognition of the wide use of THC, a semiquantitative homogeneous immuno-assay (EMIT ) has been developed for the rapid screening of urine for THC by detection of the 11-nor-Δ9 -THC-acid metabolite. The enzyme employed in the THC assay is malate dehydrogenase. The assay is run in the standard EMIT therapeutic drug protocol with a 30 second antibody incubation and the elimination of the sample predilution. The calibration levels for the THC assay are negative, 20 ng/ml (cut-off), and 75 ng/ml THC. Samples giving an enzymatic rate greater than or equal to the cut-off are judged positive. The 95% confidence detection level of the assay is 50 ng/ml THC. Within run precision, expressed in terms of coefficient of variation of the enzymatic rate was determined to be 0.65% at 50 ng/ml of THC. The EMIT Cannabinoid assay detects the principle cannabinoids and their metabolites. These include 11-nor-Δ 9-THC-9-acid, Δ 9 THC, Δ THC, cannabinol, and cannabidiol as well as numerous THC metabolites with varying sensitivity. All other non-cannabinoid compounds showed no significant interference.


N-SUBSTITUTED AMPHETAMINES
Dr. Alexander Shulgin

A brief review is presented covering amphetamine and several of its known homologs in areas of particular interest to the forensic chemist. The drugs discussed include homologs on the nitrogen atom (methamphetamine, N-ethyl amphetamine, N-(higer alkyi) amphetamine, N,N-disubstituted amphetamine); homologs on the side chain (phentermine, phenpentermine) including N-alkyi derivatives (mephen-termine); homologs on the aromatic ring (aptrol, xylopropamine); and drugs that give rise to these materials metabolically (fenethyl1ine, amphetaminil, amphecloral) The known synthetic routes to these drugs are outlined, including processes that are frequently encountered in the illicit laboratory. The needed precursors and their preparation procedures are listed to establish the limits of intent in such preparations. Analytical procedures for qualitative and quantitative analyses of illicit samples, including both seized samples and body fluid analysis, are discussed.


TOOLMARKS ON PAPER: COMPARISON OF SINGLE SHEETS
Peter D. Barnett; Forensic Science Associates, Emeryville, CA., 94608

Toolmarks produced when paper is cut to size have been used to show that stacks of multiple pages have been cut simultaneously. The tool marks left on a single sheet of paper can be similarly compared. This is done by making a profile of the edge of the sheet on photographic film, and comparing two sheets by juxtaposing these profiles.


EFFECT OF FINGERPRINT POWDER ON TYPING OF BLOODSTAINS
Mary H. Graves, Margaret C. Kuo, James M White; Orange County Sheriff-Coroner, Santa Ana, California

Several commonly used fingerprint powders were selected to determine possible effects on the typing of dried bloodstains. Freshly drawn unpreserved blood was spread as a thin film on sheets of clean glass, and allowed to dry in darkness for about 24 hours. Fingerprint powder was applied to the dried blood. Measured amounts of blood were removed and analyzed for the following genetic markers: ABO, EsD, EAP, AK, ADA, PGM, GLOI, and Hp, as well as species reaction.


CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE FORENSIC CHEMIST TO THE LISTING OF SUBSTANCES IN THE CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES ACT
Frank Sapienza; Office of Compliance, Regulatory Affairs, Drug Enforcement Administration, Washington, D. C.

A drug which affects mental processes can be included in the Controlled Substances Act, if there is evidence that it is hazardous to the user's health, or to the community's safety or there is significant diversion or there is significant use contrary to medical advice or in the case of a new drug, that its actions are so like a drug already listed as to make it likely that it will have the same abuse potential as the one already listed. If a drug has an accepted medical use in the U. S., evidence that it produces physical or psychological dependence must also be available. Information developed by forensic chemists is essential to the regulatory process; how and why will be explained in the presentation.