48th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Fall 1976)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
October 7-9, 1976
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
STATUS REPORT: DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH’S FORENSIC ALCOHOL ANALYSIS PROGRAM
Daniel R. Morales, Chief, Clinical Chemistry Laboratory California Department of Health, Berkeley
Amendments to regulations concerning forensic alcohol analysis have focused attention on the performance of laboratory licensed to perform these tests. In response, the Department of Health's laboratory staff has prepared guidelines, conducted workshops, and is providing consultation to laboratories. This presentation will review these efforts and will examine the types of problem reported by laboratories.
SEMI-AUTOMATED FINGERPRINT RETRIEVAL EMPLOYING "TERMATREX" AN OPTICAL COINCIDENCE SYSTEM
Duayne Dillon, Chief, Criminalistics Laboratory, Contra Costa County
A discussion of a semi-automated retrieval system. Record fingerprint cards of known or suspected burglary offenders have all ten impressions coded with a classification system which includes ridge minutiae. The codes are inserted into a data deck and retrieval is accomplished by commercially available retrieval equipment utilizing an optical coincidence method. The success rate for evidence fingerprint identifications, as well as cost effectiveness data is discussed.
REPORT SPECIES TYPING ANTISERA
Dr. G. F. Sensabaugh, Forensic Biology Study Group, University of California
The Forensic Biology Study Group has analyzed 48 anti-sera commercially prepared for forensic species typing; of these, 13 are antihuman antisera. These antisera have been tested for specificity against a panel of species sera by double diffusion analysis. No antiserum was completely species specific; a considerable variation in specificity and sensitivity was observed. The antisera were also characterized by immunoelectrophoresis;
they vary considerably in the antigens recognized.
ACID PHOSPHATASE TYPING ON GLYCEROL STARCH GELS
Dr. G. F. Sensabaugh and V. Golden, University of California, Berkeley, California
A study of the mechanism of action of red cell acid phosphatase has shown a trick which can be used in the typing of this genetic marker. The mechanism appears to involve the formation of a phosphoryl-enzyme intermediate; the hydrolysis of this intermediate is the rate limiting step in the phosphatase reaction. The apparent rate of the reaction can be greatly increased in the presence of certain alcohols which are more efficient in breaking down the phosphoryl enzyme intermediate. By incorporating glycerol into standard starch gels at a concentration of 15%, the rate of staining increases dramatically.
X-RAY ANALYSIS OF THE COMPOSITION OF JACKETED BULLETS
James Mathieson, Finnigan Corporation, and James Norris, Santa Clara Crime Lab
The elemental composition of a series of jacketed bullets has been determined. Measurements were made to determine the composition of the copper jacket and the internal lead. Correlation studies and actual homicide results are discussed.
CRITIQUE: FIRST TIME USER IMPRESSION OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
Joseph A. Power, Jr., Forensic Chemist, Western Regional Lab, Drug Enforcement Administration, San Francisco, California
Explanation of the principles of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography: discussion of the preparations, training, and precautions in the use of the instrument. Discussion on the use of HPLC in the DEA laboratory and evaluation of the instrument for drug analysis.
CERTIFICATION IN CRIMINALISTICS
Robert R. Ogle, Jr., Managing Criminalist, Santa Rosa Regional Laboratory
Report on the progress made by the CAC in regards to the certification of criminalists. Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of certification and a possible approach to certification.
FORENSIC SCIENCE DEFENSE
John D. DeHaan, California DOJ Criminalistics Laboratory, Sacramento; and Paul Dougherty, Chief Criminalist, San Mateo County Redwood City, CA
Discuss the four areas of Forensic Science which are under scrutiny of defense attorneys. These areas are Questioned Documents, Latent fingerprint identification, Drug Analysis, and Pathology. These four areas were discussed as examples in attacking the prosecution's expert witness by defense attorneys in a symposium, National Institute of Forensic Science Problems in Criminal Defense presented by the National College of Criminal Defense Lawyers and Public Defenders.
MORPHINE IN BLOOD BY GC/MS
Dan Pearce, Orange County Sheriff's Office, Laboratory of Criminalists, Santa Ana, California
Use of deuterated Trifluoroacetic anhydride as internal standard in the detecting and quantitation of morphine in blood samples. Samples were taken from suspects arrested for being under the influence of heroin. Approximately 200 samples were studied.
William G. Martin, Forensic Chemist, Western Regional Lab, Drug Enforcement Administration, San Francisco, California
A number of slides will be shown on a series of clandestine laboratories seized by DEA. A discussion on the route of chemical synthesis of the drugs as related to the evidence found in the particular clandestine laboratory. Also, a discussion on the various means information was obtained that brought about the seizure of a laboratory, i.e. by informants and information on the precursor used.
SOME CASE EXPERIENCES IN THE APPLICATION OF SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FOR DETECTING GUNSHOT RESIDUES
Dr. Gerard M. Wolten, Dr. Peter F. Jones, and Robert S. Nesbitt, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California, and Wilkaan Fong, Laboratory of Criminalistics, Santa Clara County, San Jose, California
Introduction on the development of the method in general. Experiences in some cases will be presented; discussion of some practical considerations relative to sample collection and preparation for court.
FORENSIC APPLICATION OF HIGH PRESSURE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH
Steve Ellis and Dave Mawry, Perkin Elmer Corporation, Mountain View, California
Over the past few years, HPLC hardware has evolved from research laboratory system to routine reliable high performance instrument. Pumps now exhibit flow precision of + 0. 1%. Columns have improved dramatically. Column ovens have contributed to more efficient separation and more reliable retention volume. And lastly, detectors can now be wavelength tuned to yield qualitative and quantitative data. Examples of these hardware improvements will be shown on a variety of drugs as related to forensic analysis.
COLOR TEST FOR HEROIN AND/OR OPIUM IN POWDERS AND LIQUIDS
Paul Zeionis, M. Sc. Forensic Chemist, Southwest Reg. Lab Drug Enforcement Administration, San Diego, California
An improved field test for powders and liquids suitable for use by agents and Customs Officers. The testing of suspected brown heroin samples with the widely used Marquis reagent has resulted in false positives due to pigments and dyes. Secondly, current field tests fail to indicate the presence of diluents and some commonly encountered adulterants in heroin samples. Also, no satisfactory field test exists for opium powder or gum, as well as for liquid solutions of heroin and/or opium.