45th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Spring 1975)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

STANDARDIZATION--WHO NEEDS IT?
Robert T. Ekhaml

Standardization is coming, whether we like it or not. If we don't want regulation imposed on us, we must regulate ourselves and show regulating agencies that we have set our own standards and that we abide by them. We all know in our own experiences that unqualified individuals have testified and have been accepted by the courts, both as prosecution and defense witnesses. This is an intolerable situation. Standardization is not to be confused with proficiency. The practicalities of the present situation will be presented, along with possible resolutions.


A QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TYPEWRITER IRREGULARITY
John I. Thornton and Edward F. Rhodes

Randomly selected typewriters were coded for the presence or absence of damage to typeface, misalignment, tilt, and evenness of striking. This coding required 15 character spaces for each upper and lower case letter, and for the numerals 2 through 9. Each typewriter is therefore characterized by 900 bits of information, requiring computer manipulation of the data. Typewriters were compared with one another by means of a similarity coefficient specifically developed for typewriter comparisons. The highest coefficient of similarity thus far observed between randomly selected typewriters is 0.12. The significance of this co-efficient was assessed by other experiments involving

Dissimilarities Coefficient
0 1.0000
1 0.9110
2 0.8367
3 0.7738
4 0.7198
5 0.6729
6 0.6319
7 0.5957
8 0.5635
9 0.5347
10 0.5087
23 0.3147

AN EXAMINATION OF FORENSICALLY SIGNIFICANT PARAMETERS WITH RESPECT TO A SELECTED CLASS POPULATION
Wilkaan Fong, Victor Reeve, and James Mathiesen

In this study a number of glass samples have been accumulated and the following variables have been measured:

  1. Index of refraction
  2. Density
  3. Elemental composition

Many of the samples used in this study have already been classified according to density and reported by Fong. The elemental composition was determined by the use of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. Results are presented showing comparison of density and elemental composition and index of refraction with elemental composition. Probabilities of indistinguishbility are also discussed.


DIGITAL PROCESSING OF LATENT FINGERPRINTS
C. L. Patterson, R. P. Chiralo, and M. M. Irvin

The increasing work load of the fingerprint identification officer represents one of the more pressing problems in law enforcement. Further complications arise when the quality of the latent fingerprint is low as it usually is. The digital computer is a logical aid to the identification officer in that many operations ranging from enhancement to file search are possible. This paper presents a review of current practice in latent print identification and enhancement via computer systems. Particular emphasis is placed on digital transforms used to reduce the amount of data required to describe a fingerprint, latent print enhancements, and the use of color to assist the officer in selecting and demonstrating points for comparison.


RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN FINGERPRINT RETRIEVAL
Harold Lail and Gerald Youker

Attempting to fingerprint the body of a crime victim while "investigating a crime scene" has never tried to retrieve fingerprints from the person of a victim because they thought it could not be done. The fact is fingerprints can be developed on human skin as readily as on any other object that may contain latent fingerprints. The difference is in the recovery of the fingerprint, and the limited areas where prints may be found.

Fingerprints on a living victim will disappear after an hour to an hour and a half, but this is time enough if the victim reports the crime immediately, and the involved police de-partments priorities are arranged to aid in the recovery of this type of evidence.

Fingerprints on a cadaver may last several days, and with the proper equipment these prints can be developed and retrieved and can be as clear as any fingerprint lifted from glass or tile.

X-ray electronography utilizes the x-ray's ability to momentarily disrupt the atomic structure of metal atoms. When the metal is bombarded with high energy x-rays, electrons are knocked out of orbit, and these photoelectrons, or Beta particles are used to expose film that is in direct contact with the metal When fingerprinting, the latent fingerprint is dusted with a powdered metal, and then film is placed in contact with the metalized fingerprint. A high energy x-ray beam that has been filtered to remove the soft component of the x-ray is then beamed through the film without exposing the film. The metalized area then causes the film to be exposed by the Beta particles. After the film is developed, a positive fingerprint on clear film will appear.

Electronography also has advantages in the fingerprinting of money and checks as it removes the background and allows the print to be read with a clear background.


THE PREDICTION OF TRAUMA
Dr. Alan M. Nahum

In the past decade, a great deal of information has been derived from studies of human trauma. This information has come from many sources including the observation and reconstruction of field vehicular accidents, from laboratory experiments involving human simulation, and from computer studies. With this information it is possible to make certain predictions regarding the nature, location and severity of trauma which might be expected in a given impact situation. This information has important implications for the reconstruction of trauma where important information may be missing on either the injury or the impact side of the injury event. While this information has been derived primarily from vehicular accidents, the information can be applied to all human injury situations.


DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF AMYLASE LOCI (AMY1 AND AMY2) IN HUMAN BODY FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS
Edward T. Blake and George F. Sensabaugh

There are two genetically distinct types of amylase in humans (Merritt, et al, American Journal of Human Genetics 25, 510-522, 1973). Amylase found in urine, blood serum, and pancreas is elaborated at the Amy2 locus and is distinct from the amylase found in saliva which is elaborated at the Amy1 locus. Merritt, et al, have shown that Amy2 is polymorphic and that the less frequent B allele is expressed as an autosomal dominant gene.

We present evidence that Amy1 is expressed in perspiration and milk, although at much lower levels than in saliva. The polymorphic Amy2 locus is expressed in seminal plasma, vaginal secretions, and feces. The Amy2 phenotype can be determined by electrophoresis on acrylamide gels.


RAPID PHENOTYPING OF ERYTHROCYTE ACID PHOSPHATASE AND GLUCOSE-6 PHOSPHODEHYDROGENASE ON CELLULOSE ACETATE
Benjamin W. Grunbaum

A systematic program is under development in this laboratory for the concurrent determination of the genetic variants of as many polymorphic proteins and enzymes as possible. Employing a technique described previously for phenotyping the isoenzymes of phosphoglucomutase (B, W, Grunbaum, J. Forens. Sci. Soc., 1974, 14, 151), two additional isoenzyme systems can now be resolved electrophoretically and their variants determined. Using separate cells with specific buffers and, subsequent to electrophoresis, specific substrates, hemolysates are run for erythrocyte acid phosphatase (EAP) and glucose-6 phosphodehydrogenase (G-6PD). Characteristic isoenzyme patterns can be discerned between 60-80 minutes following the simultaneous application of 8 specimens for EAP and 24 for G-6PD per each cellulose acetate membrane. Unbollifery 1 phosphate acts as a substrate for EAP and results in fluorescent bands. It is best to record EAP isoenzyme patterns photographically when the individual isoenzymes begin to show optimal intensity. The membrane is then rapidly heated at 110 C in a special frame. The proteins are thus denatured and the enzyme pattern is immobilized and prevented from further diffusion. In this fashion the electrophortogram (zymogram) can be permanently preserved and studied again if needed. The G-6PD pattern is seen as the insoluble blue formazan bands. It is thus permanently preserved. The EAP phenotypes AA, BB, AB, AC and BC as well as the G-6PD variants A, B, and AB arc readily discernible on their respective cellulose acetate supporting media.


A FAST MICRO METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE GENETIC VARIANTS OF ERYTHROCYTC ACID PHOSPHATASE BY STARCH GEL ELECTROPHORESIS AND ITS APPLICATION TO DRY BLOODSTAINS
Edward Peterson and Benjamin W. Grunbaum

Procedures now in use for the phenotyping of erythrocyte acid phosphatase (EAP) require extensive preparations and running times totaling about 6 to 20 hours. A method has been worked out by which 8 to 16 specimens can be run simultaneously on a 1-mm thick starch gel and that requires approximately 1 μ/sample. Following electrophoresis the fractionated isoenzymes of EAP are acted upon by a substrate containing 4-methyl um-belliferyl phosphate. After splitting the phosphate from the substrate, the isoenzymes become visible is fluorescent bands. Two buffer systems were tried, citrate phosphate and phosphate. The former required 80 min electrophoresis time, while the latter required 60 min for adequate resolution. The, zymograms could best be photographed and studied in a time period of 5 to 15 min following electrophoresis. Maximum fluorescence was usually reached in 10 min. Discrimination of the five common phenotypes was thus readily accomplished. Application of this standard procedure to dry bloodstains will be discussed.


PERSISTENCE OF SELECTED GENETIC MARKERS IN DRIED BLOOD
G. C. Denault, H. H. Takimoto, and Q. Kwan

The persistence of selected genetically derived constituents in dried human blood was investigated over a six-month period. Blood drawn from 12 donors was deposited on six substrates and the dried specimens aged at ambient temperature under 20 and 66% relative humidity conditions. Analyses were performed at 1, 2, 4, 13, and 26 week aging periods. The red cell antigen systems evaluated were the ABO, MN, Rh, Kidd, Duffy, and Kell while the enzymes included AK, ADA, PGM and EAP systems. The moisture environment had an adverse effect on some of a negligible effect on others. The discrimination probability, i.e., the probability of two randomly selected individuals having the same combination of genetic variants, was calculated for each test period. The values obtained were based on the persisting genetic markers at each aging period using the frequency of occurrence data found in the literature.


SEMI-AUTOMATIC SPEAKER IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
Patrick K. Broderick, James E. Paul, and Robert J. Rennick

A semi-automatic speaker identification system will be discussed which analyzes a speech samples to identify and extract speaker-dependent features and to subsequently perform a statistical comparison of the features from different samples. The purpose of the system is to enable law enforcement personnel to compare the recorded voice of a criminal (e.g., from a bomb threat recording) with recorded voice samples from suspects to identify the perpetrators of crimes. The system utilizes a minicomputer and associated peripherals to accept analog speech signals for processing and statistical comparison. In the criminal speech sample processing operation, specific phonetic events which have been found to have a high degree of discriminating power are identified and labeled by the operator using an interactive graphic display terminal. When a suspect sample is obtained, the same phonetic events are selected for processing. In the comparison phase each selected event from the criminal sample is compared with a like event from a suspect sample. The points of comparison are well defined and yield quantitative results on a repeatable basis.


DETECTION OF DRUGS OF ABUSE IN URINE
Naresh C. Jain

Methods of analysis for drugs of abuse together with quality control measures required to assure accurate results are discussed. Immuno chemical methods are routinely used to screen urine specimens for amphetamine, barbiturates, methadone, opiates, and where necessary, for other drugs such as benzoyl ecgonine and methaqualone. Urine specimens containing known drugs, urines with no drugs, split samples, and five randomly distributed check samples are included with each batch of 100 specimens.

Gas and/or thin layer chromatography are used to confirm drugs. Amphetamine and methamphetamine are analyzed both as free bases on a 10% Apiezon L-10% KOH column and as their trifluoroacetamide derivatives on a 3% OV-17 column. Barbiturates are analyzed as free acids on a 10% SE-30 column. Opiates are gas chromatographed as their acetylated derivatives on 3% Poly-A 103 and 3% OV-25 columns, and the remainder of acetylated extract is subjected to TLC using ethyl acetate: acetone: NH4OH (100:15:4.5) as the developing solvent. Combination of TLC/GLC is also used for detecting drugs for which immunoassays are not available.


PROBLEMS IN GUNSHOT WOUND INTERPRETATIONS
Dr. Dean Wiseley

The combination of burns and postmortem charring of bodies made gunshot wound evaluation difficult. The added damage to bodies due to exploding ammunition produced further difficulty in interpretation of wounds. Problems were solved by a combined study of radiographs, histopathology, and identification of missile fragments by firearms experts.


FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY
Dr. Gerald L. Vale

As the rate of violent crime continues to climb, the forensic dentist is called upon with increasing frequency to provide identification of the victim or suspect, or to furnish clues regarding the circumstances of the crime. The use of forensic dentistry in the SLA shootout permitted relatively rapid identification of the six SLA members who perished, thus permitting law enforcement officials to move out promptly after the remaining fugitives. Identification would otherwise, at best, have been much delayed and, at worst, impossible. The identification procedures graphically demonstrated the advantage of a multidisciplined and cooperative approach in criminal investigation.


DID DONALD DEFREEZE COMMIT SUICIDE? AN SEM/EDX APPROACH TO THE QUESTION
Dr. Ronald L. Taylor, Marc S. Taylor, and Dr. Thomas T. Noguchi

In an attempt to determine if the SLA (Symbionese Liberation Army) leader, Donald David DeFreeze ("Cinque"), committed suicide during the shootout or was killed by a police bullet, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray analysis of appropriate specimens was performed. Materials examined were the tissues through which the lethal bullet passed, exemplars of the ammunition used by the police, the cartridge cases found in the handgun beneath DeFreeze, and whole cartridges of the same type which were found next to DeFreeze's body. The fatal bullet could not be analyzed since it had exited the head and was not recovered.

Gunshot residues were found along the bullet track in the decedent. The results of their analysis were compared with those resulting from the analyses of the different kinds of ammunition used in the shootout. The major significance of this work is the demonstration that SEM/EDX analysis of a gunshot wound can be an important and valuable procedure in determining the source of a bullet in certain situations where the bullet cannot be located and its source may be obscure because two or more parties were firing weapons.


NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS COMPARISONS OF BULLET-LEAD SPECIMENS INVOLVED IN THE SLA SHOOTOUT
Dr. Vincent P. Guinn

Working in close cooperation with Dr. Ronald L. Taylor and Mr, Marc S. Taylor, of the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner-Coroner of Los Angeles County (Dr. Thomas T. Noguchi), a neutron activation analysis (NAA) study was carried out on a large number of appropriate bullet-lead specimens from the SLA Shootout (Symbionese Liberation Army), which took place in Los Angeles on May 17, 1974. The main purpose of this study was to ascertain, if possible, whether the SLA leader "Cinque" (Donald David DeFreeze) committed suicide during the shootout or was killed by a police bullet. The autopsy revealed that he died of a single bullet wound through the head, the fatal bullet exiting and not recovered. Ten fragments of this fatal bullet, retrieved from his brain during autopsy, and ranging in size from 3.4 mg to 61.1 mg, were compared with specimens of all the brands of 9mm, 0.223-caliber and 0.243-caliber ammunition that the police were firing. By means of instrumental NAA, using the U.C. Irvine TRIGA nuclear reactor and Ge (Li) gamma-ray spectrometer, various levels of Sb, Ag, and Cu were measured quantitatively in all the specimens, and the resulting data used to reach a conclusion concerning the death of Cinque.


DETECTION OF MORPHINE IN HEPATIC NODES OF HEROIN USERS
Dr. George R. Nakamura and Dr. Joseph H. Choi

During the autopsy of heroin users, the most consistent finding is the enlargement of hepatic lymph nodes. Nodes from seven heroin fatality cases were analyzed and values of 0.02 to 0.87 mg% morphine were determined. The enlargement of those nodes was suggested to be due to the presence of morphine.


GC/MS ANALYSIS OF SMOKELESS POWDER COMPOSITION
Dr. M. H, Mach, A. Palos, and Dr. Peter F. Jones

Seven components of smokeless powder have been separated by gas-chromatography and identified with mass spectrometry, employing chemical ionization. Differences in the chemical composition of powders from different manufacturers and calibers have been recorded.


CHARACTERIZATION OF GUNSHOT RESIDUE PARTICLES USING THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
R. Nesbitt, Dr. J. Wessel, and Dr. Peter F. Jones

The scanning electron microscope with x-ray fluorescence analysis has been applied to characterization and identification of gunshot residue. Characteristic particles have been found and the method has been used with 100% success to identify 35 unknown specimens taken off the firing hands of 17 persons and the hands of 18 persons who had not fired a gun. Since more than half the firings involved single shots of various .22 caliber handguns, the procedure offers significant potential for an improved gunshot residue detection methodology. In addition, a rapid and simple residue collection procedure based on the use of an adhesive layer has been developed for specimen preparation.


HUMAN VEHICULAR ABILITY VERSUS BLOOD ALCOHOL LEVELS
Richard J. Bingle

(no abstract submitted)


BLOODSTAIN: MALE OR FEMALE ORIGIN?
Dr. Hidco Ishizu and Dr. Thomas T. Noguchi

In criminal investigation, the sex identification of bloodstains left at the crime scene or on suspect's clothing would be just as important as the determination of the blood type. When stained with the quinacrine dyes, the human Y chromosome is clearly distinguished by a brightly fluorescent segment on the distal portion of the long arm (Zech, 1969). This bright segment can be detected as a fluorescent spot even in the interphase cells. Based on this phenomenon, we have established a new technique for sex identification of bloodstains. This method is also applicable to other biological materials in forensic medicine, such as hair, teeth, saliva stains, and tissue fragments.


THE CONSTITUTION AND THE CRIMINALIST
James E. Starrs

The immense development of new Federal constitutional rights and the expansion of such existing rights in the investigation and prosecution of criminal causes have been a source of alarm or, at least, concern to criminalists who fear an impingement upon their legitimate operations by accused persons and their lawyers. This presentation will pinpoint those Federal constitutional protections which will impact upon the functions of the criminalist and will describe certain, problematical and other unresolved constitutional issues of importance to the criminalist. Special emphasis will be placed on the Sixth Amendment's right of confrontation and the claimed duty of criminalists to preserve evidence for potential use of the defense as well as the supposed due process duty of the prosecution and its agencies, including the criminalist, to investigate thoroughly all aspects of an accused's innocence in addition to that person's guilt.


CRIME LAB SERVICES AT WEBER COLLEGE
Jim Gaskill

(no abstract submitted)