42nd SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Fall 1973)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
October 18-20, 1973
MENLO PARK, CALIFORNIA

THE NEW POLICE OFFICER
Victor Cizanckas Chief, Menlo Park Police Department, Menlo Park


THE DRUGGED DRIVER
Berniece Stone, Sacramento County Coroner's Office, Sacramento

A study of the number of documented cases of drivers in Sacramento County arrested for driving while under the influence of drugs, the disposition of these cases, and the levels of barbiturates found in the blood. The sources of this information are from the reports of the arresting officer, doctor, District Attorney's office, and the toxicologist. The data gathered from a 3 1/2 year period has been compiled to give the range, median, and average of the various barbiturate levels to reflect the levels of influence pertaining to the safe operation of a motor vehicle.


A FLUOROMETRIC METHOD OF QUANTITATIVE DETECTION OF Pb and Sb GUNSHOT RESIDUES
Peter F. Jones and Robert S. Nesbitt, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo

A rapid, convenient method for detection of gunshot residues on the hands of a suspect, following a shooting, is the fluorometric determination of lead and antimony which originate in the bullet primer. Following the firing of a weapon, the backs of both hands are rinsed with distilled water in conjunction with a brush. Each hand washing is then filtered, and the residues that collect on a membrane filter are removed with hydrochloric acid. Lead and trivalent antimony form chloride-ion complexes with the acid, which fluoresce strongly upon selective ultra-violet excitation at low temperature. Upon excitation, the lead and antimony complexes fluoresce with maxima at wavelengths characteristic for the two metallic elements. Fifty five other elements tested do not interfere. A calibration plot of fluorescence intensity versus concentration limits for lead and antimony are currently limited by solvent purity and are 0.002 μg/m1 and 0.02 μg/ml respectively. Additional experiments are still required to determine the amounts of lead and antimony to be found on the hands before firing a gun.

A SUPERFAST OPIUM-ASSAY PROCEDURE
George R. Nakamura and Thomas T. Noguchi, County of Los Angeles, Department of Chief Medical Examiner-Coroner

A GC procedure is presented for a rapid separation and identification of morphine and codeine as TMS derivatives. The sylating reagent serves also as an extracting vehicle.


BIOPHOSPHORESENCE - A RAPID TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC SAMPLES
Richard A. Harte, Omicron

A new instrument concept is described which applies the technique of biophosphorescence to the rapid identification of biochemical and organic chemical samples. Since almost all materials possessing an aromatic ring membered organic structure will phosphoresce under appropriate conditions, the range of applications open to this technique is unusually broad, rivaling fluorescence both in scope and sensitivity. Most significantly, since it determines specific half-life decay values for individual molecules, mixtures of molecules can be separated into distinct components, something which fluorescence and spectral absorption techniques are generally unable to provide.


DRUG DETECTION BY TLC, A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Donald W. Jones, George Sherman, & Dewitt T. Hunter, Sierra Laboratories, Inc.

A thin-layer chromatography (TLC) system has been developed which significantly economizes on time, technical effort, and equipment needs. Extraction of drugs from the organic extract is effected by passage through a simply prepared column device, eliminating the need for specialized extraction and evaporation equipment used in the classical TLC method. Drugs are selectively absorbed onto a glass fiber-silic acid strip. Using an ethyl acetate-ammonia solvent, the strip is developed for approximately 8 minutes. The dried strip is selectively stained by complete immersion into various reagents. Quantitation and quality control are farther assured through the use of a unique marker added to the specimen material and monitored systematically throughout the procedure. This modified system is compared with conventional TLC methods in terms of time, effort, and equipment savings.


A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE GAS CHROMATOGRAPH INTOXIMETER (GCI) AND A DIRECT BLOOD ANALYSIS
Martin A. Breen, Orange County Sheriff's Office

Blood and breath specimens were taken at the same time from over 200 individuals arrested for driving under the influence of an alcoholic beverage. Each breath examination was performed in duplicate by a Criminalist. Blood specimens were analyzed for alcohol by modification of Kozelka-Hine.


THE FORENSIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SAND
Francis A. Fitzpatrick & John I. Thornton, School of Criminology, University of California, Berkeley

The considerations related to the characterization of sand from the criminalistics standpoint are sufficiently different from those related to the characterization of soil to justify a separate approach. A discussion will be presented of methods to relate the size and sphericity of sand grains to geographical origin, and characterizations of surface texture by means of the scanning electron microscope will be discussed. The paper will include practical procedures for laboratory examinations and suggestions for a comprehensive approach to sand evidence.


THE BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL: II. INTERPRETATION OF SOIL ENZYME LEVELS
John I. Thornton, School of Criminology, University of California, Berkeley

A discussion will be presented of the variation of soil enzymes with distance and with time. A method for illustrating the similarity of soil sites will be discussed, and the effect of perturbing the enzyme levels by a computer simulation of a time series analysis will be illustrated. It appears that the soil enzymology presents the possibility of characterizing a soil in a time dimension as well as space dimensions.


DEVELOPMENT OF LATENT FINGERPRINTS WITH 4-DIMETHYLAMINOCINNAMALDEHYDE
Edward F. Rhodes & John I. Thornton, School of Criminology, University of California, Berkeley

The British Home Office Central Research Establishment has lately been experimenting with a possible substitute for ninhydrin, namely 4-Dimethyl-aminocinnainaldehyde. A discussion will be presented of experiences with this reagent for the development of latent fingerprints on paper, including a discussion of the influence of the organic solvent and pH on the reaction.


COMMENTS ON VOICEPRINT IDENTIFICATION
Fausto Poza, Stanford Research Institute

The method of voice identification based on listening as well as visual examination and comparison of sound spectrograms has come to be known as the "Voiceprint" method. A brief history of the development of this technique, from both a legal and scientific viewpoint, will be presented. The methodology will be described and arguments for and against its acceptability in legal proceedings will be discussed. An internally funded SRI project in which SRI scientists assist local police agencies with the use of this method is described. The data gathered during this project may help in designing laboratory tests which would simulate the field case more closely than previous studies have. An actual case study is presented to illustrate certain problems which arise in the forensic application of this technique and to demonstrate the need for a method of qualifying professional examiners.


REAL-TIME SIGNATURE VERIFICATION
H.D.Crane & R.E. Savole, Stanford Research Institute

A special ball point pen has been developed that may be useful for real-time signature verification. The pen is wired to a small computer system that analyzes the signals sent out by the pen as it is used to write a signature. These signals depend on the exact pressure, direction, and speed of writing. Thus, in order to be successful, a forger would have to duplicate not only the final signature, but also the dynamic motion with which it was originally signed. Although the verification scheme is still experimental, the pen itself is simple and inexpensive. Potential applications lie mainly in areas where there is need for immediate access e.g., into high security buildings, computer terminals, checking accounts.


THIN LAYER ELECTROPHORESIS: ANALYSIS OF INKS
L.F. Harding & G.F. Sensabaugh, University of California, Berkeley

A thin layer electrophoresis system using mixed organic-water buffers has been developed; details of the system will be presented. In the analysis of ballpoint pen inks, this system appears superior to thin layer chromatography in terms of resolution and analysis time.


DETECTION OF EXPLOSIVES
Sidney W. Benson, Stanford Research Institute

A brief review will be given of various methods which have been pro-posed and used for the detection of explosives. A program at Stanford Research Institute, sponsored by the Army, has led to an extremely sensitive method for detection of explosives. At present, the method can detect molecules of explosives in air at concentrations of 107 molecules/ cc. The method is based on a pyrolysis reaction, followed by chemiluminescence methods for detection of the pyrolysis products. Current status of the technique will be discussed, together with possible applications and limitations.


CRIMINALISTICS IN IRELAND
Dr. A.J. Howard, Belfast, Ireland


ANIMAL HAIR - A HAIR RAISING EXPERIENCE
David Q. Burd, Sacramento County Crime Laboratory

A discussion of problems encountered in identifying origin or comparing the hair of animals. Emphasis will be placed on the lack of reference material, erroneous statements in Criminalistic text books, and most criminalists’ lack of adequate personal experience in this field. A number of slides will be shown which should raise the hair of workers who express oral or written opinions concerning animal hair identification.


ANYTHING YOU CAN DO ... SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF THREE ISOZYMES
Merridee Richey, Department of Justice, Sacramento Crime Laboratory

The dual system of 6 PGD/AK as described by Culliford has been modified to include ADA. The technique for identifying the isozymes on a 1 mm plate will be presented.


HEADACHES, PROBLEMS AND FRUSTRATIONS LOOSING YOUR HAIR OVER G.P.T.
James Streeter, Department of Justice, Sacramento Crime Laboratory

In the Journal of Forensic Society, 1972, 12, 605, a technique of enzymatic determination of Glutamate-Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT) was described. The detection system, which involved the visualization of fluorescence quenching, proved to be unsatisfactory in our lab. Another visualization technique, based on dehydrogenation by glutamate dehydro-genase coupled, by means of N-methylphenazine methosulphate, to the reduction of tetrazolium salts, is currently being tried.


GROUPING IN THE DARK - TAKING ADVANTAGE OF E.A.P.
Keith Smith, Department of Justice, Sacramento Crime Laboratory

A description of equipment and reagents for E.A.P. isozyme determination. The results of a year's routine laboratory experience.


NOW YOU SEE IT - NOW YOU DON'T. TROUBLESHOOTING P.G.M.
John Cockerham, Department of Justice, Sacramento Crime Laboratory

Presentation will highlight over two years experience with PGM determinations and will include both chemical and biological origin problem solving. Both expected and some unanticipated problems will be discussed. A practical scheme of trouble-shooting will be presented. A short presentation on ways to save budget money on electrophoresis equipment.


NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDABDS "CRIMINALISTICS PROGRAMS"
Robert Mills, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C.


RESTORATION OF SERIAL NUMBERS BY ULTRASONIC CAVITATION
Stanley G. Young, Lewis Research Center, NASA, Cleveland, Ohio

Seventeen out of 21 obliterated stamped serial numbers on test specimens of copper, brass, steel, and aluminum were successfully restored. Cavitation induced in water by a piezoelectric transducer was the mechanism used. Primarily, smeared metal was removed from the number grooves by the force of the cavitation, however, numbers were also restored at depths at or below the level of the stamped grooves. The feasibility of this technique as a low cost tool for crime laboratories has been clearly demonstrated. The technique is applicable to a variety of materials and no previous surface or chemical treatments are necessary.


A RIGOROUS METHOD FOR DETERMINING WEAPON LOCATION' FROM EJECTED CARTRIDGES
John P. Bowden & James L. Booker, Department of Justice ISB, Sacramento

Although the ejection patterns of semiautomatic pistols have been observed and recorded, no use of the information to establish a definitive method for locating the point of origin of ejected cartridge cases has been recorded. This paper presents:

  1. A study of the effect of various parameters upon ejection patterns.
  2. A method for determining weapon location from ejected cartridge data.
  3. An evaluation of the utility of ejected cartridge case data.

CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF TRAVELERS EXPRESS MONEY ORDERS—ONE METHOD
David A. Bellomy & William W. Baird, San Bernardino Sheriff's Office

This matter involves one method whereby the original dollar amount entry appearing on a Travelers Express Money Order can be chemically eradicated and "raised." it is of particular interest because without standard Traveler's Express Money Orders for comparison, the eradication cannot be detected. The paper will be presented with a slide series to demonstrate the success of this method.


ANALYSIS AND SURVEY OF MARINE FUELS AND POLLUTION SAMPLES
R.A. Bouen, Royal Canadian Mounted Police & Victor Reeve, Department of Justice/ISB, Sacramento

The types of oil spills generally encountered in the harbors of British Columbia have consisted of oil mixtures from the ships' 'bilges. These mixtures are generally bunker fuels, intermediate diesel fuels, and lubricating oils. Such spilled petroleum mixtures have been collected from the surface of the water or from beaches, log booms, and piers. Collected samples may range in volume from one-liter to micro-liter quantities. This paper examines the petroleum oil analytical procedure, the results of analysis, some of the techniques devised for handling small samples and the data from a survey analysis of bunker fuels and intermediate fuels from oil refineries in Vancouver, B.C.


NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY APPLIED TO FORENSIC SCIENCE
Michael Anbar, Stanford Research Institute

Nonfragmenting field ionization mass spectrometry facilitates the analysis of submicrogram amounts of complex mixtures of organic compounds. The mass spectra obtained present very unique chemical "fingerprints." The same method of ionization allows, in combination with multilabeled molecular tracers, the quantitative determination of subpicogram amounts of materials. The development of high precision isotope ratio mass spectrometry allows the application of characteristic isotope fraction-ation or of stable isotope tracers in criminalistics. The determination of subpicogram amounts of halogens, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium facilitated by negative ion mass spectrometry is an additional potential criminalistic tool. These and other developments and applications currently in progress at the Stanford Research Institute Mass Spectrometry Development Center will be discussed.


SHOTGUN SHELL IDENTIFICATION FROM MANUFACTURER'S MARKINGS
Michael J. White, Department of Justice/ISB, Sacramento

An attempt was made to characterize shotgun shells found in three separate locations at three separate times as having possible batch identity. The three samples of shells were seized over a two year period. Characterization was achieved through utilization of a number of separate parameters. These parameters were shell primer, shell crimp, powder identification, wad column, and the head stamp on the base. This presentation deals chiefly with head stamp comparison as it relates to batch identification. A comparative analysis was performed on the head stamp on the shells. In conjunction with the analysis, a time/wear study as to head stamp and head stamp die was accomplished with the cooperation of Remington Arms. Results and implications are also discussed.