37th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Spring 1971)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
May 13-15, 1971
NEWPORT BEACH, CALIFORNIA

LASER RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY IN CRIMINALISTICS
R. Cook, R. Jankow, W. Tenney, J. Wlllis, Jr., Cary Instruments, Monrovia, Ca.

The Raman effect results from scattering interaction of monochromatic light with a molecule. The sample shifts the monochromatic light in wavenumbers by an amount proportional to the spacings of vibrational energy levels of the molecule. For example, skeletal vibrations involving a six-membered ring, such as the barbituric ring, give rise to strong, easily characterized Raman bands; whereas, the same compounds have very complex infrared (IR) spectra. On the other hand, some compounds give quite intense IR bands but very weak Raman bands. This is true in the case of water, which is an ideal solvent in Raman spectroscopy because of its weak Raman spectrum.

Raman instrumentation also offers several advantages over IR. Some of these advantages are: the optics required need only transmit in the visible region, the detectors which can be used are better, the wavenumber range, 0-4000 ??cm-1 , would require two IR instruments, no purge for water vapor is required, and since the Raman experiment is a single beam emission experiment, the basic instrument itself does not have to be as complex as a corresponding IR instrument. In addition, sample cells can be much simpler, i.e., melting point capillaries, original containers, whole fibers, or whole tablets and capsules.

Potentially, the most useful application of Raman in criminalistics is in drug analysis and characterization. As an example, Raman allows quick and reliable determination of barbiturates as a class. Specific barbiturates can be identified with the "fingerprint" pattern of the Raman spectrum.

Raman is now a useful, flexible, non-destructive technique which can be used in a routine manner for specific identification of specific materials.


ORAL PRESENTATION OF CCCJ STATEMENT OF POLICY ON CRIMINALISTICS SERVICE
Robert Drake, California Council on Criminal Justice (CCCJ) .

Presentation on History of the Criminalistics Survey and Resultant Policy Paper, followed by question-and-answer period.

Subcommittee recommended that the CCCJ encourage to submission of a proposal from the Department of Justice, establishing a state-wide and state-operated system of criminalistlcs laboratories. Approved by the council in January, 1971.

Department of Justice is in the process of developing the proposal for submission.


ILLICIT HEROIN CHARACTERIZATION BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY
George R. Nakamura and Thomas T. Noguchi, Los Angeles County Coroner's Laboratory.

Combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is a logical addition to the non-empirical instrumental methods available for a forensic analysis of heroin preparations. Microgram quantities of illicit heroin are "fingerprinted" as to their molecular structures as a mass spectrum rapidly following its separation from adulterants and/or diluents. Mass spectrum of heroin can be furnished in a few seconds upon appearance of its GC peak. Computer capabilities which are available for interfacing with GC-MS and for identifying unknown constituents in illicit drug preparations, petroleum products and other items frequented in criminalistics are described.


FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY AS AN AID TO GENERAL CRIMINALISTICS
Walter H. Birkby, Human identification Laboratory, Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Physical Anthropology as a discipline is subdivided into several areas of specialization, perhaps the oldest of which is Human Osteology. There has emerged from this specialization, a pitifully small number of physical anthropologists interested in applying their knowledge and skills to forensics and human identification.

Although most often called upon to determine the age, sex, race, stature, and physical peculiarities of skeletalized human remains, their expertise has been extended to include badly burned or cremated remains, badly decomposed bodies, and even mummified individuals. Several types of cases are presented as illustrations. Included is a recent northern California case involving identity based on radiographs of the hand.


THE BALLISCAN BULLET PHOTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE
Robert S. Matchett, Hycon Company, Monrovia, Ca. 91016.

The Balliscan camera is a new tool for the firearms examiner. Although a precision instrument, it can be operated with ease by the firearms examiner or laboratory technician after a short indoctrination. Extensive photographic experience is not required.

The Balliscan camera will photograph any roughly cylindrical object with a diameter of up to 0.55 inches. The resulting picture, on 70 millimeter film, is at two times object scale and shows the entire circumference with extremely high resolution. Enlargement to forty times object size, without loss of fine detail has been demonstrated. Most deformed bullets can be photographed readily.

The Balliscan camera is compact, light, and fully portable. All elements are self-contained and it can be used in any normally illuminated room with a 110 VAC outlet. Operation is simple, with no special training or knowledge required. It contains provisions for centering and erecting the bullet or shell ease and achieving perfect focus. The object can be viewed at 24 times enlargement while mounted on the camera. Separate film supply and take-up cassettes permit processing of single pictures or strips of film containing a number of pictures. The firearms examiner, working with enlarged prints of several test bullets, can rapidly establish proper phasing, if the bullets were not marked prior to firing. Repeatable striations can be identified readily and marked. Next, the enlarged photo of the evidence bullet is compared to the test bullet photos. Class characteristics comparison, including twist measurement on bullets in good condition, can be completed with a few simple but accurate measurements. Correct phasing between the evidence and test bullets, in most cases, is quickly found. Striations shown on the evidence bullet photo are then compared with the repeatable striations marked on the test bullet photos. The results of the photographic comparison can be confirmed with the comparison microscope very rapidly since the examiner knows the proper phasing of the bullets as well as the locations of all significant striations.

Balliscan pictures can be exceptionally useful as an aid to the firearms examiner explaining his conclusion to a jury, when such exhibits are needed. The entire significant surface of each bullet is shown in a single photograph. Class characteristics. Including dimensional and angular measurements can be annotated for easy understanding by the layman. Striations, significant to the identification between test and evidence bullets, can be pointed out. If comparison microscope photographs are also used, the orientation and positioning of these can be easily seen when related to the Balliscan pictures. Any questions concerning correctness of the phasing between the bullets or the orientation of rifling striations can be readily answered.

Retrieval of a bullet from the many thousands in the larger crime laboratories' files is a great problem. High resolution pictures will not eliminate the need to file and recover evidence items, but they will provide a major savings in time and handling. Because of the dimensional accuracy, class characteristics can be measured on the enlargement print and recorded on the print of file jacket together with other identification data. The bullet and the photograph can then he filed separately. When comparison with newly received bullets is required, only the pictures need to be withdrawn from the file. Comparison of these with pictures of new evidence bullets will, in most csaes, quickly establish probable identification, or disprove it. Later miscroscopic comparison will be much faster and simpler because of the photo comparison. The number of bullets removed from the files will be minimized, and the risk of evidence bullets being damaged by repeated handling will be reduced. Microscopic comparisons will be substantially reduced in number.

Bullets, when received at the crime laboratory, frequently have foreign substances (blood, paint, etc.) adhering to them. These substances must be removed before the identification/comparison process can be performed. A color photograph provides a permanent record of the bullet's appearance. This may be used to support testimony concerning the composition of the contaminating substance. A black-and-white picture of the cleaned bullet will permanently preserve all identification information available on its surface. Minor degradation or damage which might occur in the latter handling and examination of the bullet will not destroy this evidence. Also, as pointed out above, the potential for damage to the bullet will be reduced because bullet handling is minimized through the use of photographs.


PSYCHEDELIC OR PSYCHOTOXIC?
George R. Nakamura and Nathan Adler, School of Criminology, University of California, Berkeley.

This paper explores the semantic connotations of the term, "Psychedelic." Its present social usage as well as its psychopharmacological implications are discussed in details. Also the meaning of various terms used to describe psychopharmacological drugs were compared with that of psychedelic drugs. An attempt is made to define those psychological effects which differentiate LSD and LSD-type drugs from other drugs which produce changes in perception, emotion and consciousness. Glue-sniffing has been sometimes compared with LSD-taking as a psychotomimetic experience; its overall effect as a CNS depressant is elucidated and precluded as one like that of LSD.

Some questions are raised whether the use of the term psychedelic in the differentiation of a unique configuration is now applicable. The original meaning of psychedelic connotates a beneficial change and the lay sense is that of bizarre, harmless and pleasure-giving sensations while the true experiences from drug-taking are fraught with psychotoxic reactions and dangers, both physical and psychic.


PLANNING, OPERATION AND RESULTS OF AN ALCOHOL IMPAIRMENT STUDY
Cecil L. Hider, County of Santa Clara Laboratory of Criminalistics, San Jose.

The organization, selection of subjects and equipment for an alcohol impairment study were discussed. Data, comparing blood alcohol level to individual subject impairment, was presented by graphic representation utilizing lantern slides.


AN OVERDOSE OF CHLOROQUINE
Herbert M. Irvin, Kern County Sheriff's Department Criminalistics Lab, Bakersfield, California.

A narcotics addict suspected of receiving an overdose of heroin, was found to have died from an overdose of Chloroquine. Heroin and several tranquilizers were suspected materials but no drugs other than Chloroquine were found in the blood or urine.

Addicts in the Bakersfield area had received Chloroquine because of a malaria outbreak and many tablets had been distributed among their population. How this person received the overdose was not determined. The blood contained 0.9 milligram percent Chloroquine Diphosphate.


DRUG METABOLISM REVIEWS OF FORENSIC INTEREST
Anthony J. Verbiscar, Ph.D., Drug Metabolism Information Analysis Center, Sierra Madre, California.

In a broad sense any foreign compound that has an effect on a biological system is considered a drug. Drug Metabolism is a study of the biochemistry of these foreign compounds, and includes substances of both natural and synthetic origin. There is a wide range of ways that drug metabolism can enter into forensic toxicology where there is a concern for those aspects of drugs involved as a cause of death or in other legal aspects.

As an introduction to the importance of metabolism in forensic toxicology three recent news-making drugs were discussed briefly. Cyclamate, a non-caloric sweetener, metabolizes in mammals to cyclohexylamine. This metabolite is a known carcinogen in rats, a fact which led to removal of cyclamate from the market. L-DOPA was recently granted FDA approval as an antiparkinson drug, and it appears to act via dopamine, one of its major metabolites. DDT is metabolized slowly by mammals and is stored in body fat for long periods along with several metabolites. The potential dangers in this have led to limited use of this established insecticide.

Reviews of several published metabolic studies of forensic interest were presented in brief including the following:

  1. The metabolism of amphetamine was compared in various species including man, and the inhibitory effect of several drugs. Including ethanol, on amphetamine detoxication was noted.
  2. Ethanol was shown to interact with dopamine metabolism leading to the formation of metabolites such as tetrahydropapaverollne. An hypothesis was presented for further metabolism of this metabolite to morphine-like alkaloids which could contribute to an explanation of alcohol pharmacology and its addictive liability.
  3. In rate the metabolism of DOM (STP), an hallucinogen on the FDA list of drugs for potential abuse, is extensive. Only 8% of the parent drug is excreted in the urine although 50% and 28% appeared in the form of two major metabolites.
  4. In man, the metabolism of medazepam, leads to the formation of eight metabolites. Four of these metabolites showed anti anxiety activity similar to the parent drug.
  5. In man, DL-methadone metabolized to a major metabolite which was not active as a narcotic analgesic but which occurs in quantity and is readily assayed.
  6. The metabolism of Δ8- and Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinols, two active con-stituents in marijuana, is rapid resulting in the formation of hydroxylated metabolites. The 11-hydroxy metabolites of both drugs are up to 18 times as active as the parent depending upon route of administration.

ION PAIR EXTRACTION OF HEROIN AND ITS QUANTITATION IN THE PRESENCE OF COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED DILUENTS AND ADULTERANTS
James M. White, Orange County Sheriff's Department, Laboratory of Criminalistics .

Direct solvent-solvent extraction of heroin HCl is a rapid and selective method for the quantitation of heroin in the presence of commonly encountered adulterants and diluents.

Heroin is extracted from 10% HCl into CHCl3, then re-extracted into 0.2N H2SO4. The UV absorption of this solution is determined in acid as heroin, then converted to morphine by the addition of sat. NaOH, and the UV absorption re-determined.

Acetylcodeine interferes with the determination of heroin in acid, but does not interfere with the determination of heroin as the equivalent morphine in strong base.

This extraction method is routinely applied to the quantitation of heroin seizures. (The procedure appears on the last page).


AUTOMATION OF SAMPLE EXTRACTION AND PREPARATION PROCEDURES
Eric S, Wright, Los Angeles County Coroner.

This is a brief summary of instrumentation designed to completely alleviate a very large proportion of the time and effort expended in the extraction, purification and isolation of drugs and toxic substances from a wide variety of samples, including body fluids and tissues.

Basically the operator programs the instrument to meet the needs of his particular analysis by selecting operating conditions from a wide variety of combinations of operations. Once operating conditions are selected the operator needs only to place his sample(s) in the proper receptacle(s) and push the button. Operations including extraction, purification of extracting solvent, reextraction of desired drug or substance, and isolation of fractions then take place according to program. This is accomplished in a variable time schedule with thirty minutes as the limit. At the end of each run fractions are presented in test tubes and/or beakers depending on whether the particular fraction is desired to be in aqueous solution or in sol-vent.


A SIMPLE OPTICAL COMPARISON INSTRUMENT FOR FINGERPRINTS AND OTHER ITEMS OF CRIMINALISTICS
Brian Parker and Aryeh H. Samuel, Stanford Research Institute.

A fingerprint comparator utilizing non-coherent whole-image comparison will be described and demonstrated. It offers a low-cost method for rapid comparison of latent prints and other single and multiple prints. Achievements as well as remaining technical problems will be described.

The principle of the comparator is as follows: When a high contrast (all black and white, no gray) transparency is overlaid with its negative in front of a diffuse light source, no light comes through. If the negative is now reduced in size and positioned in a parallel plane some distance away, the two pictures define a pyramid at whose apex there is a single point which again receives no light from the light source. This black spot can be seen when the pictures match, but not when they do not match.

This comparison method is particularly well suited to the comparison of fingerprints because they are two-dimensional and have neither color nor gray scale. Thus this method can do everything that holograms can do.

Remaining problems with this method have to do with the distortion between different impressions of the same finger. Proposed ways to overcome this will be explained.


INFRARED LUMINESCENCE
William C. Smith, Santa Clara Criminalistics Laboratory.

A summary of the theory and applications of infrared luminescence. A description of a simplified photographic set-up for the recording of infrared luminescence was discussed. The set-up included the use of a saturated CuSO4 light filter and a #70 Wratten lens filter. The film used was Eastman Kodak High Speed Infrared film with normal exposures approximately five minutes at f6.3.

The applications included the restoration of obliterated and faded writing. Approximately one-half of the inks tested exhibited Infrared luminescence,


HOW TO CRACK SAFES
Jerry Chisum, State Bureau CII.

Movie made by Utah State Prison Inmates shows how to "punch" safes including a "blasting punch." Also shows how to peel a safe. By following the methods used in this film a safe may be peeled in less than five minutes!

The real value to the Police officer and the Criminalist of this film is that it graphically illustrates the source of the Physical Evidence involved in a safe burglary.


EJECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOMATIC WEAPONS
Duayne J. Dlllon and John E. Murdock, Contra Costa County Criminalistics Laboratory.

The authors reviewed the literature relating to that information which reportedly may be obtained through an analysis and comparison of the patterns of ejected cartridge cases from automatic weapons. Factors which must be controlled and cautions which must he observed were presented. Experimental work of this type by the authors was reported. Conditions and controlled factors were included. Tabulated results and distribution diagrams were shown. The wide variations which can occur with a single weapon or among a number of weapons of the same make and model were demonstrated. Examples of highly consistent patterning weapons were also presented along with examples of investigations in which attempts were made to utilize approaches of this type.


ION PAIR EXTRACTION OF HEROIN
James M. White, Orange County Sheriff's Department, Laboratory of Criminalistics.

Extraction Procedure:

Compound Abs., 0.2N H2SO4 At designated λ max. Abs., strong Alkali At 297 nm
Heroin, base 279 nm .0046 .0066
Morphine, base 285 nm .0048 .0079
Codeine, base 284 nm .005 Nil
3-Monoacetyl-morphine, base 280 nm .005 .006
6-Monoacetyl-morphine, base 283 nm .004 .006
Acetylcodeine 283 nm .004 Nil

Alumina; 1,1,1-trichloroethane: methanol, 98:2

Compound Approximate Rf
Morphine .04
Quinine .19
6-MAM .31
Codeine .33
3-MAM .42
Procaine .46
Heroin .67
Acetylcodeine .71

References

  1. "The Analysis of Heroin." United Nations Bulletin on narcotics, V, 2, 27, 1953.
  2. C.I. Wright. "The Enzymatic Deacetylation of Heroin and Related Morphine Derivatives by Blood Serum." J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 71, 164, 1941.
  3. G.R. Nakamura and H.J. Meuron. "Assay for Heroin in Illicit Preparations Using Partition Chromatoeraphy." Anal Chem 41, 1124, 1969.
  4. Dal Cortivo et al, "Identification and Estimation of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide amide by Thin Layer Chromatography and Fluorometry." Anal Chem 38, 1959, 1966.