36th SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Fall 1970)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
October 22-24, 1970
CONCORD, CALIFORNIA

HALLUCINOGENIC PHENETHYLAMINES
Alexander T. Shulgin, Toxicologist

There are four major classes of drugs that present problems to the forensic chemist. The stimulants are best defined by amphetamine and methamphetamine. The depressants are represented by two families, the barbiturates, and a large number of hypnotics pharmacologically related to scopolamine. This latter group contains many synthetics such as ditran and phencyclidine (PCP, Sernyl). The narcotics embrace not only the opiates such as heroin, but a host of synthetics such as meperidine (demerol) and its countless chemical extensions.

The fourth group, the hallucinogens, is divided into three subsections:

  1. the phenethylamines such as mescaline and dImethoxymethylamphetmine (STP);
  2. the indoles such as dimethyltryptamlne (DMT) and psilocybin;
  3. and a one-of-a-kind category of unusual structures, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and LSD.

Considerations such as availability of chemical components, synthetic problems, and the preferences of the illicit markets, all indicate that any new drugs appearing in the future will probably be related to the phenethylamines or to the phencyclidine class of drugs.


APPLICATION OF HIGH SPEED LIQUID ADSORPTION CHROMATOGRAPHY TO CRIMINALISTICS
Paul J. Cashman, School of Criminology, University of California, Berkeley

The implementation of high speed liquid adsorption chromatography as a standard analytical practice in the crime laboratory is considered with respect to the theoretical factors governing both resolution and speed, in terms of the classical van Deemter equation. Also considered are the practical aspects of high speed liquid adsorption systems and how they relate to the other chromatographic techniques currently in use,


AN APPARATUS FOR ACHIEVING A SENSITIVE, STABLE AND LINEAR DENSITY GRADIENT GENERATED BY HEAT
Wllkaan Fong, Laboratory of Criminalistics, Santa Clara County

A thermal apparatus for generating a stable and linear density gradient for the comparison flotation of glass was described. The apparatus consists of a glass tube tightly wound with fine-diametered resistance wire. The spacings between successive windings were uniformly increased from the upper level to the lower level; the rate of increase was calculated from considerations of the heat transfer equation. Recordings of temperature on a 1 mv chart recorder were effected through iron-constantan thermocouples permanently embedded along the length of the tube at regularly spaced intervals. Thermal regulation was provided by a physically separate water-filled tube, wound with resistance wire connected in series with the resistance wire from the gradient tube. This tube was equipped with a mercury thermometer calibrated to interrupt the applied voltage at a desired tem-perature.

The confirmation of the linearity of the gradient established, the sensitivity expressed in grams/ml/unit length, and a comparison of results obtained from gradients prepared from layered liquids was given. In addition, the application of the apparatus as a method for determining absolute density was discussed.


A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO SPECTROSCOPY
Richard G. McKee, McKee-Pedersen Instruments, Walnut Creek, California

The flexibility and economy of modular instruments was discussed. The instruments, called the MP-System, consist of electro-optical modules and accessories, such as a strip chart recorder, a timer-counter, etc. The optical modules have been designed for fast interconnection in a vide variety of light paths. Examples of the possible applications included flame emission spectroscopy, fluorimetry, and UV-visible NIR double beam spectrophotometry. The use of operational amplifiers for signal conditioning was also discussed. Examples of applications included the measurement of photo-currents, scale expansion, balancing dark current, converting; %T to absorbance by taking logarithms, and recording derivative spectra.


HIGH SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY OF MILITANT DEVICES
Joseph G. Berke, Stanford Research Institute and Paul M. Dougherty, San Mateo County Sheriff's Office

The film and slide presentation examined several typical types of commonly encountered militant explosive and incendiary devices. These devices were constructed according to descriptions given in the militant literature collected by the San Mateo County Sheriff's Office. The high speed films and slides showed the devices before, during and after detonation which allowed one to study the event in great detail. In addition, several devices were placed in simulated target environments and the lethality and damage potential recorded on film. Typical devices studied included pipe bombs, napalm, shaped charges and gasoline bag incendaries.


CII BOMB INFORMATION SYSTEM
Earle T. Simmons, Organized Crime Unit - Intell. Section, Sacramento, Ca.

A discussion was presented on CII attempts to develop a bomb information data bank. The data will be used to provide statistical information and as an investigative aid.


THE COMPUTER AS AN AID TO PROJECTILE TRAJECTORY ANALYSIS
Jorgen Vindum, MBAssociates, San Ramon, Ca.

The use of a computer as an aid in tracking down one of the bullets used in the murder of Berkeley Police Officer Tsukamoto was described.

The presentation included a description of the data which was developed as a result of an examination of: the crime scene; the physical evidence collected at the scene; and information provided by a witness. This case was presented as an example of an instance where a computer was utilized to solve a complicated problem.


REPORT ON SAUDI ARABIA
Elliott B. Hensel, Agency for International Development

A tape-recorded message and slides were presented which illustrated the activities of the Criminalistics Advisory group in Saudi Arabia. The presentation included a pictorial tour of the city where the group is located and a brief description of the life style of its residents.


APPLICATIONS OF THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
Thomas L. Hayes, Donner Laboratory and Department of Medical Physics, University of California, Berkeley

The scanning electron microscope provides images of bulk specimens at magnifications up to 20,000 times. Many of the useful attributes of the light microscope are duplicated by this higher resolution instrument. Applications, particularly in the fields of biological and medical research, were presented. The possible advantages of displaying information as subjective, experiential visual images was considered and the present limitations and future growth of the instrument was discussed.


A RAPID METHOD FOR GROUPING DRIED BLOODSTAINS
William Jerry Chisum, Criminalistics Laboratory, Bureau of Criminal Identification and Investigation, Sacramento, Ca.

The ammoniacal extraction of blood stains has been adapted to a microscopic technique. By eliminating the unnecessary time-consuming steps, a rapid method of grouping ABO stains by absorption elution is presented. The technique rivals the Lattes slide technique in simplicity and time.

Procedure:


THE PERMANENCY OF LATENT FINGERPRINTS ON NON-ABSORBENT SURFACES
Duayne J. Dillon, Criminalistics Laboratory, Contra Costa County Sheriff's Office; Co-authors John Thomas and Clifford Kranik, University of Illinois, Circle Campus

A review of the literature with respect to the permanency of latent fingerprints was presented, tracing the subject from the time that fingerprints were first suggested as having an evidence potential by Thomas Taylor in 1877. Previously available information was characterized as representing the conflicting subjective impressions of a number of workers in the field as well as equally conflicting results of poorly designed, controlled and inadequate "studies" conducted between 1919 and 1966. The authors presented data on their experimental investigation of the subject. 1000 fingerprints from 100 donors representing a cross-section of society were collected on glass under standard conditions, maintained in a monitored environment, with randomly selected specimens mechanically developed at pre-selected ages. The results indicated the initial development of usable fingerprints in 95% of the donors, 83% after 24 hours with a gradual decrease to 70% at 56 days. The results indicate the major loss of legibility of latent fingerprints occurred within 24 hours after their deposition with a very gradual decrease in legibility up to 56 days under the environmental conditions of the study.