21st SEMI-ANNUAL SEMINAR (Fall 1961)
CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF CRIMINALISTS
October 27-28, 1961
CLASS CHARACTERISTICS OF .32 CALIBER AUTOLOADING FIREARMS
Reported work in the identification of make of weapon from which questioned bullets and/or cartridge cases have been fired. Examinations made of various .32 caliber weapons and cartridges fired therein using a specially constructed binocular measuring microscope which was shown. Copies of a rather complete study were distributed which list data secured in Dillon's study as well as that reported in 1931 by Mezger, Hass and Hasslacher. Tables give angle of twist and land impression widths for .32 caliber pistols. Cartridge case identifications made by position of extractor and ejector markings as well as breech finish and other special characteristics. Complete report should be obtained by those interested in such work.
CLASS CHARACTERISTICS OF 9 mm PARABELLUM PISTOLS
Further identification data on 9 mm pistols. Pass out material included observed mean and range of width and angle of land impressions on bullets fired in 9 mm pistols of various makes. Clock positions of extractor and ejector, breech face marks, firing pin diameter and other observations on cartridge cases fired in same weapons also included.
RIFLING DATA OF RIFLES
Reported and passed out material on data obtained from manufacturers concerning rimfire and centerfire rifles. Data included groove number and width, rate of twist, groove diameter for various calibers, makes and models of rifles. Any laboratory interested in gun type identification should obtain copies of the data distributed by all three authors.
NOTES ON TYPE X AND KO-REC-TYPE TYPING CONNECTION MATERIAL
These are new materials by which errors in typing can be corrected. When error made, material is inserted between ribbon and paper and error repeated on typewriter. This deposits a chalk-like deposit over incorrect letters. After this, the correction is made over the deposit. Although by casual observation the correction may not be noticed, it is easily detected by close examination, photography or examination by transmitted light.
NEW I.B.M. TYPEWRITER
Don Harding and Faye Hilley
The new IBM electric typewriter, which has a stationary carriage and prints as a spherical typehead moves across the page, was described. Various typeheads are available which can be rapidly changed on the same machine. While little difficulty should be experienced in identifying the typewriter and typehead, it appears that serious difficulty may be encountered in identifying a specific machine due to mechanical action and identical typeheads on different typewriters.
DETERMINATION OF CHLORAL HYDRATE IN BODY FLUIDS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
A method was described for the analysis of Chloral Hydrate which combines diffusion after hydrolysis in a Conway cell with a final determination using Gas-Liquid chromatography. The method is specific with no interference from embalming fluids or other halogenated hydrocarbon. The method is sensitive to concentrations as low as 3.4 ppm in blood and other body fluids.
Morris Grodsky distributed QUESTIONNAIRES ON PROFESSIONALIZATION to be filled out by members. The results of the study will be reported at a later date.
L.B. Miller briefly described various dopes being used by juveniles which have intoxicating and other effects. A list of such materials and other data will be sent any member upon request. He also showed copies of two large charts which should be of value to any crime laboratory. These are as follows:
- "Textile World's Man-Made Fiber Table" ($1.00 per copy) Edited by Textile World, 330 W. 42nd Street, New York 36, New York. A large fiber chart including descriptions and identification tests.
- "How & Why Type Faces Differ" (No charge) - Published by L.A. Type Foundries, Inc., 225 E. Pico Blvd., Los Angeles 15, California.
ADAPTATION OF NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS TO CRIMINALISTIC WORK
Robert W. Watkins, General Atomic Division of General Dynamics, San Diego
Neutron activation analysis is an analytical technique involving the bombardment of samples and standards with neutrons to convert the elements to unstable radioactive forms. The elements are then identified and assayed quantitatively. The method consists of placing the sample in a container, irradiation in a nuclear reactor, measurement of radioactivity with gamma ray scintillation spectrophotometer and calculation of concentration by comparing peak heights.
The advantages of the method include extremely good sensitivity for trace element analysis, small sample size required and non-destructive analysis in many cases. Its limitations consist of necessity for access to a neutron source, samples are sometimes quite radioactive and the limitations imposed by radioactive decay and short half-life of some radioactive elements.
Among possible applications mentioned were use of the method for detecting As in tissues (0.0007 ppm); identification of hair and determination of area where an individual has been by hair analysis (detection of trace amounts of elements present in water consumed such as in a hard water area like San Diego vs. softer water in San Francisco); identification of blood by analysis of trace elements present, etc. A study of firearm residue deposits made for Ray Pinker was described. This consisted of detecting traces of antimony from the hands after firing weapons. It even detected traces of gold and copper from a ring on the hand of Wolfer who fired the test shots.
General Dynamics is interested in hearing about any applications for the method and where possible is willing to cooperate on experimental work. Contact: Activation Analysis Section, General Atomic Division, General Dynamics Corp., P.O. Box 608, San Diego. They hope to be able to give one day service for analysis and report and it is expected that changes will not be excessive for regular work in the future when equipment costs and procedures necessary are considered. A tour of the General Dynamics facility may be possible at the San Diego Seminar.
AN AUTOMATIC ATTENUATOR FOR VAPOR PHASE CHROMATOGRAPHY STRIP CHART RECORDERS and FORGED PUNCH MARKS ON AGRICULTURAL PIECE WORK CARD
Described an automatic attenuator for use on the gas chromatograph using a rotary switch operated by a solenoid. Lights on side of instruments show attenuation at which chromatograph is operating. The device is relatively simple to build and can be done at a cost of $25-$30 for parts. Details will be sent upon request to interested persons. In addition, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 32, January 1960, Page 144, carried an article describing such an attenuator.
The second paper by Harvey described a case involving the forgery of punch marks on agricultural work cards. Although differences between genuine and forged punches were not easy to see, the use of document gauges and photography make the differences obvious. Talk illustrated with photographic slides.
ANALYSIS OF BLOOD FOR SYMPATHOMIMETIC AMINES
Maj. Robert L. Krivelka
Of over 300 compounds derived from phenylethylamine base, 25 are in use. For stimulant activity, an isopropyl side chain on an unsubstituted ring is required. The UV absorption spectra of many of these related compounds are the same. These materials may be separated and identified using steam distillation, solvent extraction processes and chromatography.
The material is acid hydrolyzed by autoclaving. The method of Mannering is used to extract the hydrolysate, using ether to first extract the strongly acid solution followed by another ether extraction of the solution at pH 11. The solution is adjusted to pH 8.5 and then extracted with chloroform butanol mixture. This is dried, dissolved in alcohol and chromatographed on 1/2 m phosphate buffered paper at pH 7.5 using N butanol solvent saturated with buffer.
Development may be with 1/2% dinitroflurobenzene for amphetamine. Apply the developer as a spray, heat the chromatogram ten minutes at 100°C to give permanent spots. Detection may also be by ninhydrin, iodoplatinate or diazo spray, each giving characteristic colors.
PYROLYSIS OF PLASTICS
Reported upon the differentiation of different classes of plastics as well as different types of plastic of the same class by pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products of the plastics were analyzed on a Pye argon gas chromatograph. Tables and graphs summarizing the work were distributed which covered many plastics. In addition, samples of various plastics studied were passed out. Any interested laboratory not obtaining these specimens can do so by contacting Dr. Paul Kirk.
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY OF MARIJUANA RESINS
This paper was a continuation of a previously presented study of marijuana resin and the Duquenois test. Various fractions of Cannabis sativa resins were separated by extraction in petroleum ether and injection into an Aerograph chromatograph. Each of six initial fractions were collected and rerun at higher temperatures which further differentiated. Duquenois color reactions varied with different fractions. The results of the study showed that Duquenois reagent reacts with many components in the resin which accounts for various colors reported in the literature. The specificity of this test for marijuana resin is also somewhat in doubt as a result of these studies.
SUMMARY OF PAPERS ON GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY OF DRUGS
Kenneth Parker, University of California
A paper by Parker and Kirk appeared in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 33, p. 1378 (Sept. 1961). (Reprints are available from Kirk). In addition to presenting part of this material on barbiturates, Parker also presented and distributed hand-out material on the separation and identification of some alkaloids, tranquilizers, and sympathomimetic amines using various chromatographs. Data distributed consisted of nine pages of tables showing retention time and instrument as well as chromatograph conditions including column, temperature, flow rates, carrier gas, etc. Data cannot be briefly summarized. Interested persons not present at the Seminar should contact Parker or Kirk for copies of the data.
SUMMARY OF STUDY OF LATENT FINGERPRINT WORK OF THE 50 LARGEST CITIES IN THE U.S.
Reported the results of a study made by sending detailed questionnaires to large departments throughout the country. The range in number of identifications made varied tremendously. Cases where identifications were made by latents varies from less then one to 60 per 100,000 population. Number of identifications appeared to be related to who was doing the latent work. The greatest success appeared to be in agencies where latent fingerprint searches and comparisons were under a crime laboratory rather than an identification bureau, detective division or others.
CONCEPTS ON THE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF CRIMINALISTIC OPERATIONS
Of more importance than the establishment or reorganization of a criminalistic laboratory is the organization of the overall criminalistic program or operation. The latter was discussed, including the various functions to be considered in such operations. These functions include:
- Operations--scope, depth and orderly disposition of work in time to be of use.
- Logistics--operating and capital outlay supplies, facilities and transportation.
- Services--maintenance and housekeeping as well as liaison services occasionally necessary due to lack of equipment or specialized personnel.
- Personnel--technical and clerical.
- Training--in service training of new personnel as well as keeping up with new developments.
- Fiscal--operating costs can be paid in variety of ways depending on type of agency and who receives services.
Mobile laboratories were also discussed. Few such units do any but the most simple laboratory work in the field. Various functions which they usually or occasionally perform were covered. Each laboratory represented briefly described what, if any, mobile operations they carried out. Most did some such work although few had regularly assigned mobile laboratory units. In only San Francisco and Los Angeles were the units strictly under police laboratory control.